English Subtitles for World Views and Values: Hobbes Leviathan (lecture 3)



Subtitles / Closed Captions - English

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hobbes' appears to be going off into a different direction he's talking about what we would now days typically associate with psychology and say well that's really got nothing to do we're any other things that he's he's focused on with you know political science or with custom ology or or not even necessarily matter physics psychology is about the

the emotions of the human being their feelings or what he's calling the passions their fundamental motivations remember though that psychology is a discipline that originally emerged from philosophy here and at the time the hobbs is writing it's not yet an independent discipline

that's going to happen several centuries later so harms as a good for loss for trying to make sense of the entire human being and really I love the world as much as he can is going to be doing some psychology summer voluntary motions will get so why is calling on voluntary in a moment of focus here on this this notion of the passions

houses like many as other contemporaries in trying to figure out how are emotional I our apt active life our motivations really work in part because they're often tends to be is we see this early on even with playdoh I dissonance between water emotions are appetites for our desires are telling us to do here and what really is a or rationale earlier prudence

is telling us to do and house is not going to talk about the passions of the soul because it doesn't actually leaving soul but he is going to talk about the human mind the human mind is just as much a matter a passions as it is other thoughts as matter fact you might say that passions Archana thought

just as much about sense issues just as much about reasoning this really is what drives us this is what gets us moving this is what brings us to do things and this is what motivates must much of our Reza so we really want to have a clear sense about what's going on with us he has his term call

dour here endeavor on Hugh views air something physical letter all these things are ultimately going to be physical so he says in a rebel source to source emotions pick you earlier to them one called vital which is big on during generation continue without interruption throughout the whole life

like an old circulation the blind breathing I'm you know nutrition excretion all sorts of things that we don't really see is voluntary they just here writer physical processes but their physical processes that living tissues have to have in order to remain living tissues others are voluntary motions and he gives

examples like to go to speak to move any berlin's in such manner as his first fancy dinner months so are you a CR conscious life our life there he has to do with what we shoes on some level 20 is gonna be motivated by what he calls and our so endeavor is the broadest designation for this this

a motion over affect it dimension of human life he says I'm know all the one study man and I conceive any motion at all to be there when the thing moved is invisible I am debt does not hinder but that such motions are and their small beginnings of motion within the body of a human being before they appeared walking speaking striking

and all the other visible actions and this he calls endeavor so this is the beginning are our conversations like moving here or approaching a camera or you know putting chocolate to my cheek or any and all sorts of things taking my glasses of taking my putting my glasses back on

taking them off again all those are voluntary actions but they begin with and our and our columns you might say in two main flavors or if you like polarities yeah here you can see that haha the same things very similar to some other thinkers that we've looked at in the past there's appetite or desire that motion toward something I want to read it or or

I am drawn towards the truck for them attracted to it right I turn my body towards I focus my attention on you actually want to hear what they have to say on you know muter the volume and his you listen to what I say a prayer apples on so they can get rid of the other distractions you're watching the poor now that's lotion twirls

right appetite or desire then there's motion away from this is the %uh dissident desire what he calls Hirscher and you know this is a common term for that so we have a a question we have a pool you might say we have a positive we have a a negative I'm motion away from things is a virgin when we r

first is something we don't want that day so he says this endeavor west towards something which causes call after desire this latter being the general name in often up times restrain a signifier desire a food namely hunger and thirst would endeavor is from words something that's a beautiful thing thus reducing from word is generally call

versions as we got these from the Latins day at other words from the Greeks doesn't matter what we call a we can call them you know for not you know and the old German for anything or even say being drawn towards were being withheld by we will hold them can be alert for this earth the main thing to understand is that these are basic human drives is a basic human

I experience us and they're going on all the time within every human being how you for the songlist so we have appetite or desire we have version he says that much men desire there are also set to law love the feeling that we feel

in its very broad sense he doesn't mean romantic love he doesn't mean you know mother-in-law or something like that he means this very encompassing thing here case I he doesn't necessarily have to mean you know i hating somebody's got terribly because I hate chocolate the a strange things say that there are some people who do right

I or I'll all chocolate those are those are things that we can say he points out there with how can we distinction love it here are really expressions our version and desire by we talked about having desire for something what we mean is but we're talking about something yes absence or when we don't yet have right

if we feel the versions or something again I'm cleanup me happy totally awsome by as it is pushing us away but it is not quite yet there then was there he hit I hate when it rains on me what I'm wearing my my at Coral Way because my core rate get wet and it doesn't dry out for a long time we say

things like this an ordinary life I hate that guy why does he have to write the same bus as me he's always playing his music salsa loca your verse to that before he gets on the bus as he's walking have the bus you like I'll pack ha your averse to him and then when he's sitting next to you haha silly here you know

on somebody else gets on the bus the guy who always brings cotton candy i mean yeah it brings enough for everybody I love that I right you see him walking down the street like I hope it catches the bus ok good design now now you know you feel that something lot worse and when you're mentioning him as president you feel love and when you're mentioning the other guy as president you feel

feel hatred towards these are feelings feel are we can also talk about another sorry example or expression I love this this polarity things that we evolved things that we feel desire for when we're actually enjoying I'm we feel house called a liar or or pleasure you know if you know writing on the chalkboard

is what I really get into army at Mississauga yeah I feeling pleasure now feeling you know delights I'm not really this because you know the while playing when I feel first child in a moment that satisfies way I'll house also says to her talking about mental

pleasure we we talk about joy so you know I use the dating example in my other videos you remember when you go on your first date was somebody who really attracted to and no holy you know whatever you want to say they're attracted you to remember how wonderful that feels

that such as the physical pleasure in the south so you know you know your body feeling a certain way you might actually feels your body my fish truth you know that you might be throwing up the next moment we have those butterflies in your stomach but psychologically you feel sense are well-being I love happiness and joy

that's up now you on the other side things that we are averse to do things that we hate when we have when we're stuck with them we feel displeasure or we feel pain that guy gets on the bus with this stupid music that's just something the whole time

I wish she would shut up and get out here by the way he also stinks you know would be nice if the guy to shower once in a while I know we can go on and on not or Mozilla displeasure I'm you know it can be stretching it a little bit I have a hearing because you know we typically associate here is like a physical pain

I'll in the broad sense Cain is anything that that bothers when we think about mental things we can talk about Greek you know the the deprivation of things that we have we really care about how you know when somebody dies for example why are we so grief because a good something that we actually delighted and so that you love something that we wanted

has been taken away and were averse to no synergy taking his a and flip them around now I mention that I would say something else about Shaw and I'm not going to talk about shock per se what I'm gonna say is you know what it comes down to it you say after stellar how do you feel about char

do haven't appetite tours it already have an aversion to to you love it or you hate it you know the cute Sholay to contemplate right or does it on the other hand get you agree and I can say we're all great work for the assessment now what is that least as we're at it he said

Matt wrestler Hulk calls contests he and contents goes along with love to hate we don't love her he thinks he says I'm those things are true neither desired nor heat were said to contain a

content being nothing else but in in mobility work controversy other her in resisting the actual certain things and proceeding from the that the heart is %ah remove otherwise by more porn objects were from want to experience so you know why don't care about sure I suppose a truck was the only thing in the world maybe I would feel or hate towards a

but it's pretty low I'm on the level of you know things that matter personally now if you think trying and not do this because that really creeps me out when people do that try in the scraping sound on the trial or and I like that that I actually feel displeasure about

but charger I feel contented around here one where the up this is gonna sue a very important role insulin the other motions and in human relations I am as we move into something the other chapters so I'm how goes either any says that you know this motion I that we

this call appetites seems to be corroboration final motion to halt their 02 such things better call the light you know are here have certain names and we have pleasure without and then as i says these simple passions call appetite desire love version hate July grief and also usually out in their content

have their names for diverse considerations diversified what is it Abdul racer here I am for diverse considerations divers wonderful I is when the same here is that these basic emotions I and I understand that if someone you're in psychology

you may say left out some some basic emotions because you're working with different southern that we here's other psychological theory but he had no heart a little that s just to see where he is he's actually having he's going to say bracelet as he's going to say that we can

peak is here and second motion passions tell you can do four things a the first is their I'm we can we can modify them in terms %uh the what he calls the any a

likelihood I'll shit now why does it well when we're feeling desire for something we want to achieve something we will have to get something we want to join us when we're feeling

version we want something not to be there we want to get away from it we want to escape bien we can focus on how likely how probable it is that we're going to get what we want more not get what we don't want by manners

not just what the actual likelihood yes but what we take that likelihood be so some movie early examples that a yes on appetite with a peanut heating is call whole when we feel whole we are feeling desired or something in at the same time

we hear a positive opinion %uh the likelihood of getting can wait don't have that when we have an appetite for something I'm but we don't have that opinion we think we're not gonna get that we feel despair CC other emotions can be produced by changing this variable here he goes on he says version was opinion that hurt from the object

you think you're actually it hurt by it fear the same with the hope of avoiding that hurt by resistance courage so we can and we can bring up all sorts a new considerations that produce additional passions going down this road is going to gradually reveal to us all these different

emotions that the human being feel was no other way that we can produce a new motion he says I'm from the hunch that is long or he or you can even say it's all content stores

so he's got some examples here I desire going to another is benevolence feeling you know goodwill towards another person if to me and generally good-natured desire riches consciousness or GRI I desire officer precedence ambition these are you might say emotions or drives

warehouses were passions and they depend on me object now doesn't just have to be love or hate because contempt can also fit in there as well contemptible little Helson hindrances is what he calls magnanimity and magnanimity in danger death her wounds as we call valor or four interior

magnanimity and you so riches liberality I'm we can go on and on and on you see that we can provide number different passions a number of different emotions number different drives by changing the object that long or hate were contempt applies to and then we can compound even further we can go I'll

there's another way he says I'm consideration I'll the passions yeah weekend combined so I'm you know one example of this would be love he says love one singularly with desire to be singularly beloved so they

are saying about the object rare the passionate love the same with fear that the law is not mutual jealousy what is jealousy yeah it's actually determination are chewed different emotions coming together law in a particular kind of fear

that's what produces jealousy so-so motions are actually going to be compass that they're gonna be more complex they're gonna be combinations others I'll let me see if I have some so other ones here I am for example all I am

grief for the calamity another is purely an arises from the imagination at the lake langley maple falls off and therefore is also call compassion so you know you see somebody else suffering something and you feel bad about that because you're a verse to and at the same time you here that there can happen to you because they're similar to:

that's a pity or compassion so that's a compass and emotions well member I we finally have a while other one which is a whether possibility which is the alterations warmer sash where one

a motion on passion one drive changes into another or one follows another 'em what would or be some examples of that in he is that it gives he's got this sudden glory and Sundhage action those are cases where something has changed very quickly most guys laughing and crying K he says

Sundhage action is caused by accidents are suddenly take away some some hope for proper their power on so you know I'm first were feeling confident we're feeling hopeful about getting what it is that we won and then somebody comes along and says nope you're not getting it and then we we feel be added now we cry that's an example of another

complex motion so sudden the junction kinda thing that makes us cry laughter is is another example that as well her house I'll you know is that he's got a whole bunch different examples here we have rundown the whole this here a things he has a.m. despair

fear courage anger hope a confidence difference I'm benevolence covetousness ambition a cowardice are whose Linda anonymity magnanimity fortitude liberality wretchedness kindness natural lost luxury other passionate love jealousy

I revengeful this curiosity we used to go here on a hobbs is trying to do from this basis I'll you know certain emotions and he's ways of combining them together or modifying them give us the entire range are human emotional and

effective like he's trying to provide us with the mechanistic counter there's one other thing that we do need to discuss here miss are that we didn't get it now I want to focus on p hard about the law on so what does it mean for something to be volunteer oftentimes will say

something is voluntary when we indeed shows so Miami racing this trial court is a voluntary motion because I am choosing to erase other times we'll talk about the voluntary as encompassing even things that we didn't do you but we could have done because we were responsible for

how's it going over the further than their he is willing to say there I am what we do is human beings as we have all these past I and his passions are this complicated interaction and they're sometimes going in different directions oMG but the ultimately real esta softly

whatever you know we end up maybe you feel anger and fear at the same time you don't like when when somebody s all sealed yeah you think I should irrational take revenge on their person I should say something in response but you're also freedom what might happen you have

several passions are fighting within you any my engaged and deliberations may actually ask yourself well should I do this or should i do that you might think yourself about half talks about that says I'm when the Minute Man amputation versions hopes and fears concerning what are the same thing arise

alternately and the Brewers good and evil consequences the doing your meeting at the thinker how did it come successively in our thoughts so sometimes we r amputated sometimes a version sometimes hope to be able to do it sometimes a spear future attempted the whole summer love desires aversions

hopes and fears continue until the thing be either done or thought impossible that we called liberation soul deliberation here's the song I'll the cash that you feel about something and then we eventually come to the point where we say I'm gonna do this or not good

or maybe all week until later underside right so he says I'm this happens with human beings this also happens with annals I'm deliberation happens when that were over they deliberated under thought impossible in till then were free to decide to do it or not to do it even though we're being motivated buyer

passions and then we arrive in a quite worried either act or don't everything is possible and we want to do something we do it everything it's impossible then we don't do it success in deliberation the last appetite perversion immediately adhering to the action

is that which we call will we get the word voluntary from the Latin word for will follow us voluntary action concerns the will but the will for hearts is essentially just the product %uh all these passions all these drives all these being pushed and whole and Rana and repulsed in all these different modalities

that's what the will yes he's says it doesn't even you don't even really need to think about freedom of the will or anything like that you're free initial you actually decide and then of course you to sign it so it doesn't matter but so long as their server play of the appetizer desires or versions with each other you're free

you are responsible its your well so cash us produce voluntary motions as a matter fact in a certain way even the passions themselves can be to some extent voluntary motions do you have any

I responsibility how angry you care how sad you get or you know whether you desire things too much to you any role in being able to change her I would say that that makes it voluntary so what we've got here so to sum up is a picture the human being yeah as again still machine but now

driven by all his different desires and %uh versions that are part over nature or that we learn over time I'm and they produce or keep us from producing our actions deliberation and that will fit into those but they're largely a product in Assam our passions



Video Description

This is a lecture video developed for my new online World Views and Values class with the ReasonIO Academy, which you can access here - http://reasonio.teachable.com/p/world-views-and-values/

The course was originally developed for students at Marist College. In this portion of the class, we are reading, examining, and discussing Thomas Hobbes' masterwork, Leviathan.

This video continues the discussion of Hobbes' mechanistic and materialist conception of human beings that Hobbes, now looking at the structure of human motivation - from Endeavor to Desire and Aversion, and then into the play and development of all of the passions felt and experienced by human beings.

The course itself is intended to introduce students without a background in philosophy to some of the key texts, authors, perspectives, and concepts of the History of Ideas, with a particular focus upon human nature, culture and society, and the reality underlying and encompassing human beings and their experiences.

Intro music is Russian Easter Festival Overture, Op. 36, by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, performance placed in the public domain by MusOpen