English Subtitles for PSYC 2200 Lesson 8 Learners w exceptionalities



Subtitles / Closed Captions - English

Educ Psyc 2200 #8 Learners with Exceptionalities

All students are unique with individual needs. This section in the course will cover learners with exceptionalities. 2 videos are recommended—”How Difficult Can This Be?” and “Sean’s Story”. More information on them can be found in the Lagniappe section of your Moodle page. <<< There do exist extreme differences in ability. Each student is different with indiv needs.

And it is no small matter to meet all these indiv needs in a group setting. Pressure on teachers to teach large numbers of students in short periods of time makes tending to indiv needs even more difficult. But it MUST be done-- beginning in the planning stage. Use whatever strategies necessary from seating arrangements, to computer-assisted instruction, to peer tutoring, to curriculum modifications. If the indiv needs of children are neglected over long periods then they will stop trying and give up or they will misbehave and clown,

or both. Be flexible-- be willing to try out different possibilities, different strategies. When dealing with children with different exceptionalities, be careful with the words you use. Labels depersonalize real people and give more emphasis to what makes children different rather than emphasizing the children themselves and the similarities shared by all children. Look for and see the humanity of children and respect all of them regardless of disability or exceptionality. Remember--- the BEST environmental predictors

of student achievement are teacher support, attention, and encouragement (Haynes & Comer, 1990). <<< Among exceptionalities are sensory deficits in vision, hearing and speech; cerebral palsy (CP); epilepsy; intellectual disabilities; Down Syndrome; learning disability; autism; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); gifted and talented (GT).

Vision problems: may be present if the child rubs eyes frequently, squints, holds books real close, complains that words are blurred or jump around. Glasses may be all that are needed. Low vision is diagnosed if, after corrective lenses, a child’s visual acuity is 20/70 to 20/200. This means that what the child can see at 20 feet, an adult with normal vision can see at 70 or 200 feet. (According to the Snellen Scale, normal vision is 20/20.) Children who are educationally blind (1 out of 3000), need touch and hearing to learn.

There is a toll free # to call for audio and computerized books, 90,000 of them---1-800-221-4792. Hearing problems: may be present if the child turns 1 ear towards a speaker, asks for frequent repeating of things, does not follow directions, has never-ending colds, allergy, or earaches. Need to be referred to an audiologist. Children with hearing impairments learn best with both oral and manual approaches. Oral approaches are lip reading and visual cues. Manual approaches are sign language and finger spelling. Patience is needed. Speak normally without shouting

not too slow or too fast. Face the student when speaking to him/her. Reduce other background noises and distractions as much as possible. Speech problems: pronunciation should be error free by age 8 years old. Look for shy, withdrawn behavior; decreased social interaction; slow response to questions; difficulty finding the right word; disorganized, frustrating speech with necessary words missing. Speech problems may accompany cleft palate. Included under speech deficits are stuttering, receiving or understanding language, and responding

using language. Added time and patience are musts. <<< Cerebral palsy-- a catch-all category which is due to brain damage, most frequently oxygen deprivation at birth. CP involves a range of motor or coordination difficulties from mild to severe. May or may not involve cognitive processing. CP may be spastic with stiff muscles and contorted limb positions. CP may also be ataxia with muscles that are stiff one

minute and floppy the next. Thus movements are jerky and clumsy. Many CP students have unclear speech. There are adaptive devices and computers to aid learning. Voice synthesizers can be quite helpful for those with intense speech deficits. Epilepsy-- a neurological disorder marked by seizures and caused by abnormal electrical discharges in the brain. 2 major types: partial seizures which only involve a small portion of the brain, and can go undetected since the student appears to be daydreaming or staring

and eyelids may twitch. Often 1 to 30 seconds cannot be accounted for by the student after a partial seizure. Also called absent seizure. Do not assume a child is malingering or spacing out on you to avoid work. Generalized seizures, also called tonic-clonic, happen in the second type of epilepsy and involve a large portion of the brain. These can be accompanied by loss of consciousness and/or convulsions. Convulsions can last from 2 to 5 minutes and can be frightening to unwarned observers. Drugs generally control seizures

from occurring. But children in the class need to be made aware of the possibility that one may occur and that their classmate is ok and not contagious. Have them prepared to help move away sharp objects. In the event of a seizure, lower the child to the floor if there is time, and if the child has fallen, make sure that all nearby sharp objects are moved away. Do not attempt to place a barrier into the mouth to prevent tongue swallowing, espec a finger. Soothe the other children by remaining calm, and

send someone for help. <<< Intellectual disability (formerly called mental retardation) -- significantly below avg intellectual and adaptive social behavior, evident before age 18. 10 - 25% of intellectual disability cases are due to organic, physical causes (ie. rubella, meningitis, venereal disease, alcohol, drug use, blood-type incompatibility, preemie birth, lead poisoning, PKU, Tay-Sachs).

The majority of intellectual disability cases are due to unknown causes. Down syndrome —3 copies instead of 2 for chromosome #21. [[trisomy 21, or a translocation of part of chromosome 21 onto another chromosome. 97% of cases are due to chance abnormalities during meiosis (the production of gametes)---usually due to abnormalities in the ovum—3% due to translocation of part of 21 onto another chromosome in mother or father.]]

Greatest percentage of Down victims are intellectually disabled. A few have normal or above average intelligence and can learn well. 75% are miscarried. 1 in every 700 babies born alive have Down syndrome; very rare in African Americans. Easy going, delightful youngsters for the most part. Do well in structured jobs. More than 70% live into their 60’s. After the age of 35 years, Down syndrome victims share pathology with Alzheimer’s victims ---same type of brain lesions and neuritic plaques. Doesn’t appear to be inherited; only 4%

inherited tendency; 1 of a set of identical twins can have Down syndrome and the other be normal. Risk of Down syndrome is greater with older parents. Fragile X syndrome: abnormality on the X chromosome producing mild to severe intellectual disability. More severe in males. Fragile X syndrome occurs in 1 out of 1200 males; 1 out of 2000 females; mutation of a specific gene on X chromosome; inherited; long narrow face and prominent chin and ears; extremely shy; inadequate social skills.

Fetal alcohol syndrome: 1/3rd of children of pg alcoholic women are victims of FAS. Alcohol—increases the risk of stillbirths and irreversible defects like fetal alcohol syndrome. Even moderate drinking by the mother during pregnancy can increase the risk of behavioral disorders in the child. 50% of babies born to heavy drinking mothers suffer some form of birth defect; infants of binge-drinking mothers and those who drink heaviest during early pregnancy, have the highest risk. There is no known safe amount

of drinking, so alcohol should be avoided even before conception, and continued to be avoided until after breastfeeding has stopped. A drunk mom means a drunk fetus. Alcohol kills fetal neurons. A hangover lasts a lifetime for a fetus. >>>>>>>>>>> The autism spectrum disorder includes autism, Heller’s disease and Asperger’s disorder. Autism-- a pervasive neurological disability that can have varying degrees of severity

and is usually evident in early childhood --though may not be recognized until later childhood. It affects 1 in 68 children --1 in 42 boys and 1 in 189 girls. (CDC, 2014)—4X as many boys as girls. It was identified by Leo Kanner in 1943. Autism is a very difficult disorder to contend with for parents and educators because of deficits in language and social relations. Victims may give no or very limited emotional response. 80% of those with autism also have intellectual disability. Victims seem isolated, aloof,

detached and have strange habits like rocking, hand-flapping, head-banging, avoidance of eye contact, insensitivity to pain, and self-injurious behavior. They are fascinated by mechanical devices and appliances. Change is not tolerated well as they have an obsessive need for things to remain the same. Autism spectrum disorder has a genetic basis according to twin studies.  Many types of treatments have been developed to treat children with autism. Intensive behavior modification programs by Lovaas using Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA)

--if begun by age 3 years-- can have very good results. Research shows that 40 hours a week of this type of program results in a 43% success rate whereas 10 hours a week yields 2% of victims with normal behavior (Lovaas, 1978). ABA views autism as a behavioral disorder with a need for structure, strict schedule and consequences. The Son-Rise Program by Suzi & Barry Kaufman, also called the Open Option Method, views autism as a social interactivity disorder with a need for flexibility and spontaneity

to handle change and human interaction. ABA repeats over and over using reward until a behavior is learned. The Son-Rise Program excites the child and builds on his/her own interests so he/she wants more and relates naturally instead of robot-like. ABA uses academic skills to compensate for social ones. The Son-Rise Program teaches social skills first to overcome deficits rather than compensate for them. In ABA, the professionals are the main players

and parents observe. In the Son-Rise Program, parents are the main players. Attitude is not important with ABA. Non-judgmental attitude is paramount in The Son-Rise Program to set the stage for learning. The Greenspan Floortime Approach or “closing circles” communication method by Dr. Stanley Greenspan, excites a child’s interests, creativity and curiosity and fosters parent-child connections. There are back-and-forth play interactions and shared attention on the floor.

If the child is tapping a toy truck, the parent might tap a toy car in the same way. Then the parent might place the toy car next to the child’s truck and add language to the interaction. This goes on for hours several times per week. The Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) by Drs. Linda & Robert Koegel, 96, doesn’t target individual behaviors singly but focuses on something specific like motivation or responding to cues, or self-management or beginning a social interaction.  

B6 (magnesium) may benefit half of victims of autism. Sensory integration, speech therapy and occupational therapy are also employed. A few cases of spontaneous recovery have happened, and a few have actually recovered enough to write accounts of their experiences. Temple Grandin, is a famous person with autism and a Ph.D. She has accomplished much academically, but still is socially inept. >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

Besides autism, autism spectrum disorder includes Heller’s disease and Asperger’s disorder. Heller’s disease or childhood disintegrative disorder does not begin until after the 2nd year of life when normal development deteriorates and symptoms resemble autism. But childhood disintegrative disorder is worse than autism. Language skills, cognitive skills, social skills and self-care skills are more dramatically impaired. Deficits are severe and permanently disabling. First symptoms appear before the age of 10 years and involve the loss of skills

already learned like playing, bowel and bladder control, speaking, understanding language, feeding and purposeful body movements. This disorder is rare and there is no known cause. Asperger’s disorder is a higher functioning type of autism with a later onset. It is more common in boys and is usually noticed at age 3 or later. The victim has normal language and intelligence but suffers with social problems and intense, rigid behavior. They have trouble

expressing own feelings or recognizing the feelings of others. There is social isolation and behavior that is eccentric. They may stare or avoid eye contact. They may not honor the personal space of others. They are obsessed with a prominent or particular topic of interest to the exclusion of all other possibilities. This is called circumscribed interest like with dinosaurs, history, cappuccino, trains, autos, windows, etc. They are clumsy with motor movements, may have trouble with handwriting and riding a bike, and do not interact well

with peers. Those with Asperger’s disorder usually have a verbal IQ that is higher than performance IQ---the opposite is true of those with autism. Autistic victims tend to have performance IQs higher than verbal ones. They may be irritated by loud noises, bright lights, strong flavors and certain textures. They may not handle change well, preferring predictable routine. They may not mature as fast as expected or act their age. Treatment includes predictable routines at meals and bedtime. They need visual cues like

calendars, and checklists. They may need a sensitive classmate to team with for lunch, recess, etc. Treatment should aim at improving communication skills, social skills, and managing behavior. The children are encouraged to pursue their special interest as that may be where their strengths are. (WebMD, 2014) <<< Learning disorder refers to a problem in 1)learning,

2)communication or 3)motor skills. It is not due to defects or deficiencies in intellect or in educational opportunities. Children with learning disorder are of average or above average intelligence, but they struggle in learning basic academic skills like reading, writing or arithmetic. The learning problem exists for 6 months or longer. It interferes with school achievement and everyday activities. Learning disorder/learning disability is not an intellectual disability or mental retardation.

Victims can be extremely bright. Their learning is optimized using a different approach; a different key is necessary to access knowledge. Often a child with a learning disorder is much more accomplished in verbal or math while being deficient in the other. There is a wide discrepancy in performance comparisons. Children with LD have 2X the processing load to do because speaking, writing and listening are all cognitive tasks for them necessitating doing 1 thing at a time.

Associative tasks allow more than 1 thing to be done at the same time, and for most of us, speaking, writing and listening are associative tasks. Driving is also, except when you are first learning to drive or when you are driving under hazardous conditions. Children with LD are also distractible which means they pay attention to everything, unable to filter out interfering stimuli. >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> 1. Learning problems include reading disorder

(mainly dyslexia) and mathematics disorder (dyscalculia -- dys cal CUL ya ). Hearing and vision deficits cannot be underlying causes. Dyslexia involves problems with recognizing words, reading comprehension and spelling. Dyscalculia (dys cal CUL ya) involves problems with numbers, quantities and basic computations. >>>>>>>>>>>> 2. Communication problems include speech sounds disorder, childhood onset fluency disorder,

language disorder, social (pragmatic) communication disorder. Speech sounds disorder involves unclear speech and improper articulation though comprehension is fine as well as use of vocabulary. There is trouble pronouncing r, sh, th, f, z, l, and ch. blue=bu; rabbit=wabbit. Speech therapy works wonders. Mild speech sounds disorder may self-correct by age 8. Childhood onset fluency disorder is also called stuttering. It involves one or more of the following: frequent repetitions of sounds,

prolonging sounds, long pauses between words, substituting easier words for those beginning with hard to say consonants, repeating same word like go-go-go-go. Speech is affected but not singing. Most recover before the age of 16. Language disorder involves expressive and receptive problems with language. With receptive problems, children may have a hard time understanding what others say, or following spoken directions, or organizing their own thoughts. With expressive problems, children may use

only simple, short sentences with improper word order, say “um” a lot while trying to find the right words, have less vocabulary than others their age, omit words, echo or repeat questions, use past, present and future tenses wrongly. Social communication disorder involves trouble with social conversation. There is difficulty in the acquiring and using of spoken and written language as well as inappropriate responses in conversation. This one is a new category in the DSM 5. It denotes severe deficits in

social communication and interaction but lacks the restrictive and repetitive behavior patterns necessary for autism spectrum disorder. >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> 3. Motor skills problems include Tourette’s disorder, developmental coordination disorder and stereotypic movement disorder. These cannot be explained by intellectual disability or cerebral palsy. Tourette’s disorder involves uncontrollable and unusual repetitive movements or unwanted

sounds called tics. Repeatedly blinking eyes, shrugging shoulders, jerking head, or blurting out offensive words. Symptoms usually appear between ages 2 and 15, with the average of 6 years of age. It is 3 to 4 times more frequent in males. It is much less of a problem after adolescent years, though there is no cure. Developmental coordination disorder involves motor coordination problems not explained by intellectual disability or cerebral palsy. The child may exhibit clumsiness with holding objects and unsteady walking, and may run

into others and trip over own feet. In the first year of life there may be problems with sucking and swallowing followed by delays in sitting, crawling and walking. Later there may be problems with gross motor skills of jumping, hopping and standing on one foot, as well as fine motor skills of writing, using scissors, and tying shoes. Stereotypic movement disorder involves haphazard, purposeless movements that happen again and again interfering with life and risking self-injury. Examples are rocking, banging the head, self-biting,

nail biting, self-hitting, picking at the skin, handshaking or waving, and mouthing of objects. >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> One in 5 have some type of learning disorder. And before you start feeling sorry for yourself and go all “woe is me” on me, let me assure you that you are in good company. So WAH—no excuses. If these following famous victims can excel, so can you.

Leonardo da Vinci (wrote backwards), spelled strangely and didn’t following through on projects. Picasso may have had dyslexia. Tried so hard in school and luckily had his art teacher father to encourage him into discovering his world-renowned art talents. Woodrow Wilson (didn’t learn the alphabet until age 8, didn’t read til age 11, labeled “dull and backward”). Was the 28th president and the only one to hold a PhD. Auguste Rodin (famous artist-sculptor; poor

in math and spelling; described as “ineducable and an idiot”). Rodin's father once said, "I have an idiot for a son." Described as the worst pupil in the school, he was rejected three times admittance to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. His uncle called him uneducable. Perhaps this gave him food for thought. General George Patton (couldn’t read or write at age 12; had special reader all through West Point). Winston Churchill had learning disabilities. He failed sixth grade. He was subsequently

defeated in every election for public office until he became Prime Minister at the age of 62. Talk about not giving up! Albert Einstein did not speak until he was 4-years-old and did not read until he was 7 to 9. His parents thought he was "sub-normal," and one of his teachers described him as "mentally slow, unsociable, and adrift forever in foolish dreams." He was expelled from school and was refused admittance to the Zurich Polytechnic School. He did eventually learn to speak and read. Even to do a little math.

Thomas Edison never learned to spell; only attended school 3 months at age 8 and it didn’t work out; considered difficult and hyperactive; so he self-taught. Thomas Edison's teachers said he was "too stupid to learn anything." He was fired from his first two jobs for being "non-productive." He went on to become the inventor of the phonograph, the light bulb and the motion picture camera. Edison made 1,000 unsuccessful attempts at inventing the light bulb. When a reporter asked, "How did it feel to fail 1,000 times?"

Edison replied, "I didn’t fail 1,000 times. The light bulb was an invention with 1,000 steps." >>>>>>>>>>>> And more famous victims of learning disabilities-- Alexander Graham Bell, the inventor of the telephone, was homeschooled due to learning problems with reading and writing. Robin Williams had ADHD that interfered with his education and script memorization. But

he persevered. Agatha Christie had to dictate all her famous mystery novels due to dysgraphia or dyslexia or both. Babe Ruth was sent away to a strict boarding school due to attention problems, fighting and running wild. He discovered the focus of baseball. Harry Belafonte was a school dropout at 17 due to reading problems. Was an assistant janitor and began singing to pay for acting lessons. He went on to win a Tony, 3 Grammys,

and the 1st Emmy by a black man. Muhammad Ali, great boxer, barely graduated from hi sch due to dyslexia. Carol Moseley Braun, 1st female black senator and ambassador to New Zealand, at age 8 was bussed to an all-white school and placed in the dumb row. She used a ruler to help focus on words and numbers, reread and reworked problems, and ended up in the smart row despite her dyslexia. Erin Brockovich-Ellis suffers with dyslexia and resultant teasing. She managed to read

1000s of pages of legal documents to help win a huge lawsuit vs a polluting power company. Whoopi Goldberg is dyslexic and one of only about 12 people to have won a Grammy, an Academy Award, an Emmy and a Tony Award. Daniel Radcliffe, Harry Potter movie star, has dyspraxia, which made tying shoes and handwriting very hard. Steven Spielberg has dyslexia that was undiagnosed until he was in his 60s. He was judged to be lazy in school and was bullied. But these challenges spurred him to co-write the hit

movie Goonies about a clique of friends that didn’t fit in at school. Justin Timberlake has ADHD and was bullied in school before becoming a Mouseketeer. Michael Phelps has ADHD and couldn’t focus or sit still until he turned his love of swimming into an Olympic career winning 22 medals, 18 of them gold. Henry Winkler, of The Fonz fame in Happy Days, has dyslexia and learning problems espec w math. Cher struggled in school with undiagnosed

learning issues like dyslexia. The founders of Kinko’s, IKEA, JetBlue, Hilfiger’s, Intel Reader, Ford Motor Company—all had learning challenges. >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Attention deficit-hyperactive disorder (ADHD) is a disruptive behavior disorder marked by excessive difficulty sustaining attention or concentration, increased impulsiveness and restlessness, and oftentimes over-activity. It occurs before age 12 years and is pervasively

present in 2 or more settings—not just at home or just at school or just in the neighborhood, playground or scout meetings. Behavior must significantly and adversely affect social, academic and occupational functioning. Many children with ADHD do not get along well with children the same age. Behavior is in excess of expected behavior for child’s developmental level. Child may be aggressive, non-compliant and socially inept. Movements are erratic with lots of fidgeting and caretakers are exhausted.

To qualify as bona-fide ADHD, a child must display 6 or more of inattention symptoms or 6 or more of hyperactive/impulsive symptoms for 6 months or longer. A person over age 17 years must display only 5 of either the inattention symptoms or the hyperactive/impulsive symptoms for 6 months or more. Symptoms of inattention include careless mistakes, not listening well, not following instructions, easily distracted, forgetful, disorganization, off-task behavior in the classroom, losing or misplacing things.

Symptoms of hyperactive/impulsive symptoms include running around inappropriately, not being able to sit still, restlessness, tapping fingers, fidgeting legs, poking others for no reason, talking out of turn, talking incessantly, interrupting, bossiness, hard to do anything quietly. Only 50% of referrals are actually diagnosed as ADHD. A complete medical and psychological evaluation is necessary and cannot be accomplished in a 20 minute pediatrician visit. Many illnesses and reactions to drugs (like antihistamine,

theophylline, steroids) give ADHD-like symptoms. ADHD is a disability but does not have to be a disaster. ADHD appears in more boys than girls. 3 to 7% of school-aged children worldwide have ADHD (DSM-IV-TR, 2000). Symptoms may be due to anxiety if present only during specific times--ie math class, in school, when parents argue. Symptoms may be due to depression if they start after a stressful time-- ie divorce, birth, death, new house.

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Possible causes of ADHD are many. Genetic factors are involved—30-50% of victims with ADHD, have a parent or sibling with it. ADHD involves multiple brain networks and chemical messengers (DA, NE, 5HT, GABA). 2 dopamine genes have been implicated—DRD4 (Faraone et al,01) which is a dopamine receptor gene, and DAT1 (Krause et al,03) which is a dopamine transporter gene. These genes appear to interact with maternal use of alcohol or

nicotine during pregnancy to produce ADHD. Exposure to alcohol and nicotine during prenatal development are linked to ADHD in the child. Nicotine interferes with dopamine pathway development in the fetus and later inability to inhibit misbehavior. Nicotine also is strongly linked to low birth weight which is also a risk factor for ADHD. There appears to be deficits in frontal lobe functioning of persons with ADHD. Less activity and cerebral blood flow occurs in the frontal lobes during stimulation. And victims perform

poorly on neuropsychological tests which measure frontal lobe functioning. Conflicting parental styles of management and discipline can mimic ADHD. Witnessing abuse or being a victim of abuse can also mimic symptoms. Limited tolerance to high-stimulation can also mimic ADHD. >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Treatment includes psychostimulant drugs like Ritalin. Properly monitored, these drugs have

helped some but certainly not all. In addition, the side effects of stomach pain and sleep problems are troublesome. 85% of ADHD children who need psychostimulant drugs like ritalin for hyperactivity and/or distractibility will not need it by adolescence. 15% need drugs throughout adolescence and into young adult life. ADHD is not outgrown. Symptoms decline with age but for many people, symptoms do not disappear entirely.

Parent training, social skills training, and classroom interventions are important. Intensive behavioral therapy in an 8 wk summer program produced promising results. (Arnold et al, 03) >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> The emotional, social and family problems of ADHD victims can take on a life of their own, becoming more of a disability than the ADHD itself.

Emotional problems include increased frustration, increased failure, increased feelings of inadequacy or being bad. 60% may externalize feelings with aggression, fights, impulsively striking out, blaming others, class clowning, temper tantrums, lying, stealing. Others may internalize feelings with depression, withdrawal, poor self-image, or may channel feelings into body and develop headaches and stomachaches or vague complaints of backaches or pains in hands or legs. With emotional problems, ADHD victim avoids

the activities that cause feelings of failing and pain-- passive approach to things-- learned helplessness or giving up even though success is possible. Social problems are also common. ADHD interferes with all aspects of life, not just reading, writing and arithmetic, but baseball, hopscotch, setting the table, watching tv. ADHD victims do not get along well with children their own age. They cannot successfully do what peers can do, so may withdraw into the house or play with younger children who are doing

the things they CAN do. ie 9 year old with a visual perceptual and fine motor problem may not be able to handle sports and games his/her peers are playing but CAN do gross motor skills of 5 & 6 year olds like running, jumping and climbing. Family problems of denial, anger, and guilt also accompany ADHD. Siblings are affected. “Is it my fault? Contagious? I get punished but he/she gets away with it”. Siblings suffer guilt because they are told to understand and accept but instead they

feel anger. >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Tips for dealing with children with ADHD -- Look at the TOTAL child. Build on strengths; demagnify weaknesses. Ignoring you? Maybe not. May not distinguish your voice from all other noises in the room. Call name and establish eye contact before talking. Sequencing problem? Set 1 place as a model

rather than expect child to set table by self. Eye/hand coordination? Switch to gross motor sport like swimming, horseback riding, bowling, golf, soccer. Work with special education or resource teachers. Structure and immediate feedback required. Use reinforcing consequences of points and stars and rewards. Allow student to move around more. Connect learning to real-life and background knowledge. Use computers and game-like lessons.

Repeat and simplify instructions. Use verbal and written instructions plus examples like a model question/ answer. Break assignment into shorter segments. Avoid social disaster by talking to Scout leaders etc. ahead of time to suggest that the child with ADHD be allowed to squirt the paste vs cutting out the turkey. Success breeds improved self-image, confidence and willingness to try. >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

Gifted and talented—program for very bright, creative, talented students. G/T emerged in the late 1950’s as a reaction to Russia’s launch of Sputnik. A GT student may have a particular arena of expertise and high ability while being normal or below normal in other areas. He/she may or may not have a sizeable mismatch betw mind and emotion. This student excels in processing information; can do it faster. Has better reasoning and uses better strategies. Is better at monitoring own understanding. Students

should be encouraged with abstract thinking, creativity and independence-- not just learning more facts. For the extremely advanced IQ of 160 or above, the only practical solution may be acceleration into early college or graduate school. But for the most part, GT students can be challenged in normal classes without being segregated. Ellen Winner ’96, a GT expert, named 3 characteristics that GT students have: Inborn precocity or high ability in a particular area, gift or talent. They master this area

or gift earlier than peers and with little or no effort. March to their own drummer requiring less structure and teacher direction, less scaffolding or learning aides. They solve problems in their gifted area in unique ways and make discoveries on their own. Passion to master with intense interest and ability to focus on arena of expertise. They do not need nudging and are internally motivated. <<<

Now for an adult definition of fairness considering all these exceptionalities and individual differences. Fairness--an adult concept of fairness does not mean treating everyone the same--that is a juvenile definition of fairness. An adult concept of fairness is everyone getting what they need. ie-- CPR <<< Learned helplessness-- giving up even though success is possible; results when a child

experiences too much failure and has no control; little motivation to help self due to belief that failure is inevitable. Like Seligman’s dogs, children faced with no success in their early years accept passively the failing grades. (The dogs had no chance to escape shock initially and just lay down accepting shocks later even though they had the power to escape.) But children are not dogs and there are 3 additional dimensions to learned helplessness when talking about humans. 1. Lack of control due to external forces

is bad enough (ie magic, mean teacher, luck) but lack of control attributed to self or internal reasons is worse (ie “I’m dumb, stupid, slow!”) 2. Stable vs unstable circumstances-- If a child believes his/her predicament is long-lasting or permanent, learned helplessness is more likely. If the situation is believed to be temporary, the child is less likely to fall victim to learned helplessness. 3. Global vs specific circumstances-- If a child believes his/her shortcomings apply

to many or all situations, learned helplessness is far more likely. Mastery-- opposite of learned helplessness; is developed if teachers emphasize learning and trying and effort rather than goal performance and innate ability-- if what a child knows is stressed rather than what he/she doesn’t know; if definite small successes are set up on a daily basis and celebrated. <<<

Public Law 94-142 (1975)-- The Education for All Handicapped Children Act; requires that each special needs student be educated in the least restrictive environment according to an individualized education program (IEP). Least restrictive environment -- age-appropriate neighborhood school or the school a child would have attended had there been no disability. IEP-- annual team planning meeting with teachers, parents, therapists, and student to set goals and program modifications-- strategies to meet goals.

PL 94-142 is a giant step over early laws which gave schools the right to exclude children with disabilities from education. <<< In 1893 the Watson vs City of Cambridge case In Mass. decided that disorderly conduct and/or imbecility were grounds for exclusion from public education. Since public educ was the only game in town for the most part, exclusion meant no educ, period.

In the 1919 Beattie vs State Board of Education case, the Wisconsin Supreme Court ruled the Beattie child who had a form of cerebral palsy, was to be excluded because he drooled. This had a quote “nauseating effect on the teachers and school children” unquote. This ruling was handed down despite the fact that the boy was well-behaved and kept up well with his studies. This was a 1922 statement by GA state officials , "the fact of primary importance to remember is that a defective child will be a defective

adult, and will die a defective. There is no philosopher's stone to turn the base metals of defect into gold.“ New Mexico's constitution barred children with disabilities from public education by dictating that to attend publ school, children must have: " sufficient physical and mental ability." I am not picking on Mass, Wisc, GA or NM. Virtually all the states routinely discriminated against children with disabilities keeping them from receiving a publ education, even

in those states whose constitutions required ALL children to attend school. Children were systematically denied an educ because of their disabilities, but parents fought back forming their own classes and parent organizations. In the 1950’s a parent organization called the National Assoc of Retarded Citizens was formed and was successful in lobbying to have “educable” children included in public educ. In 1954, chief Justice Earl Warren said in

the landmark civil rights’ case, Brown vs Board of Education, that the system of segregating some children from other children promoted feelings of inferiority which could not be undone, which could harm the child’s motivation to learn, and which could hamper educational and mental development. In 1972, Wolfensberger introduced into the U.S. the principle of normalization which included the right of children to receive their educ under as close to normal conditions

as possible. By 1975 the public was more aware of the idea that even children with disabilities had the right to a public educ, Testimony before Congress showed blatant discrimination like children who were refused an educ because their wheelchairs presented a fire hazard. Sen Harkin testified that his brother who could not hear, was told he could only receive education to be a cobbler, baker or or printer. PL 94-142 was passed. Children with mild to moderate disabilities were first to be included in normal classes

if even on a parttime basis. It took until the mid to late 1980’s for a real push to include children with severe disabilities as well in age-appropriate neighborhood schools they would have attended had there been no disabilities. A 1988 study found that 10 to 55% of children with severe disab were prohibited from going to neighborhood schools. In 1992-93, only 7% of childr with intellectual disabilities were in regular classrooms. In 1990 PL 94-142 was renamed IDEA -- Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. This newer

law uses people first language and uses “disability” vs “handicap”. Disability= limitation NOT handicap. Handicap= limitation imposed by environment and attitudes of people toward people with disabilities. IDEA stresses early intervention and free, appropriate public educ for all from ages birth to 21 years. <<<

Inclusive education -- individualizing education to meet every student’s needs, regardless of abilities. Not dumping on teachers without proper paraprofessional help and without gameplans and program modifications. Mainstreaming -- allowing children with disabilities to attend portions of a school day with so-called “normal” peers. In successful inclusion programs that have the proper teacher and paraprofessional training plus special education support services, it is being found that even the most profoundly

affected children have hidden potentials which can be tapped. These potentials have little chance of ever being tapped if the child is encapsulated in a homogeneous group with no role models. The transition into adulthood has more chance to be successfully bridged with early daily interactions with children of differing abilities. Coexistence with peers in school lays the groundwork for transition into adult society later. Segregation of children with disabilities has been around for centuries and change does

not come easy. But entrenched attitudes can be changed. Like Shaw wrote in 1941: You see things and you say “Why?” But I dream of things that never were; and I say, “Why not?” <<< The first case history is of Nick a 7 year old second grader. This story is living testimony to Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development theory.

I attended the 1992 Inclusive Education Statewide Conference in Baton Rouge. This was held in conjunction with the Louisiana State Planning Council on Developmental Disabilities. At a family perspective session on March 7th, I listened to the testimony given by Sue Manos from Frederick, Maryland. Sue began her talk by encouraging the audience to take a leap of faith into the unchartered territory of inclusive education. After advice on how to approach principals and to inservice teachers, Sue began a touching testimony on

what inclusive education had done to enrich her son Nick’s life as well as her whole family’s life. When in special ed classes, Nick snorted to greet others. This was reinforced by well-meaning personnel who snorted back. As a regular ed student, Nick learned to say “hi”. Whereas Nick relied on his wheelchair for mobility in special ed, he began using a walker too in regular ed. He wanted to be upright like the others. Whereas shrieks were encouraged by Nick’s

special ed peers who would jump, and by staff who would accept or ignore, in regular ed Nick substituted whispers for the shrieks due to the demands of behavior modification in a regular class. In special ed, Nick spent long periods on the floor; in regular ed he used his walker instead. Nick had no recess in special ed; after regular ed placement, he had 2. During recesses, children played daily with Nick’s equipment with no fear or apprehension. (Sue gladly readjusted

the appliances daily.) In special ed, Nick had day after day filled with unchanging patterns of meaningless activity. In regular ed, he had meaningful activity to achieve the same goals with the added plus of peer interaction. He might be in charge of turning pages, dealing cards, or being the banker. He was given responsibilities just like everyone else which included walking attendance slips to the office or cleaning the class sink. All the while, Nick reached the same IEP goals but in meaningful, appropriate

settings. Nick’s diagnosis was profound intellectual disability. Yet he changed classes independently in second grade. ( I know of perfectly normal high schoolers who had more trouble than he did learning this.) He became more assertive and learned helplessness decreased. His speech developed rapidly and he began pairing words. Nick learned to sit in a chair; in special ed he was strapped to it. Nick had a growing number of friends and no longer was it necessary to assign to him a peer buddy. Sue saw these

peers as Nick’s future. They were growing up unafraid of him and sensitive to his needs. And it spread. When 1 child broke his arm, he had ready and willing peer buddies already practiced. Even the older children with the “toughie” reputations, were drawn to Nick. He brought out their sensitivity. On Martin Luther King Day, the children associated the event with Nick’s rights as a minority. And don’t anybody dare pick on Nick! They were protective of him.

But the very most meaningful change of all since Nick had become a regular kid in September after years of special ed placement, was that for the first time in his life he could go to McDonald’s and sit in a regular booth, just like everybody else! The abnormal becomes normal in the segregated setting of special ed. Sue witnessed what to her family was a phenomenon. Her son was doing normal things. He now had a chance. His future was brighter. In daily interaction with peers, he was given the opportunity to

develop his social and emotional needs as well as his academic needs. Case history of Dusty— This baby was born 14 weeks prematurely in Feb when he was due in June. He suffered a grade 4 intraventricular hemorrhage---the worst stroke 1 can suffer and survive. Secondary to the brain hemorrhage, this newborn developed hydrocephalus which necessitated a VP shunt. He suffered massive brain damage and over the years needed a total of 9 surgeries for various things. His medical history included

broncopulmonary dysplasia, hyaline membrane disease, double exchange transfusion for extreme bilirubin, retrolental fibroplasia, very bad bottlecap vision, detached retina, asthma, whooping cough, and mild cerebral palsy. He was adopted out of neo-natal intensive care weighing less than 5 pounds at the age of almost 3 months. A verbal learner ---this child could sing all of his ABC’s by himself without a mistake before the age of 2 years. His cerebral palsy affected his left hand and arm mostly—and

he trained every finger on his working right hand to do something different managing with 1 hand to beat every kid in the neighborhood on video games. By the time this child was in 3rd grade, his visual/motor problems caught up with him and affected his schoolwork. He learned in 1 lecture what it took other children hours to learn. Yet his visual/motor problem prevented volume reading and legible notetaking. Some of his teachers were not willing to accommodate his differences. The fact that the sharp as a

tack boy had the knowledge in his head, wasn’t good enough. He was expected to display the knowledge in the same written form as everyone else. (This is ludicrous in today’s age of keyboards and laptop computers!) The perennial “It’s not fair to the others” was voiced when extra time or fewer spelling words were suggested. Special ed was what the teachers wanted for Dusty. Dusty is our son. We had passed him off as normal and avoided the labels. Not knowing any better yet, we gave in to pressure from

the school to accept services for him. We worried about his social and emotional needs and did insist that the special ed placement was for only part of the day and not total self-containment. Special individual help and resource was promised for him academically. What a dreadful mistake!! The segregation and labeling were horrible! Our son’s spirit was crushed! Some of the children who had accepted and played with him a couple of weeks before, now harassed, threatened, name-called and made him run in fear on a daily basis.

He was now a member of the class of misfits, undesirables, the “different” special ed kids. He was called retarded, stupid, and a 4-eyed cripple. My strong, brave little party animal, my friendly fun-loving personality kid, the little guy that got along with everyone and invited kids off the street in for a coke, was devastated! But he was not a tattletale, and he kept things to himself until 1 night, when I was tucking him into bed, he broke down hysterically and spilled the beans. Once I calmed him enough

to understand his story, I got names of the boys who were chasing him and being so cruel. And the next morning, there was 1 hot mama at his elementary school. No one had any idea that the daily persecution was going on, and it was stopped immediately with the guilty children reprimanded. But the damage had already been done. I fought the system to put my child back where he belonged--into the normal classroom 100% of the time with his peers. It took a year. Then when it came time to leave elem school

and go to middle school, well-meaning educators, requested segregation again for Dusty’s protection. I refused—burn us once shame on you; burn us twice shame on me. I was told that since I did not accept their wisdom, I would be on my own to make modifications. They could only help him in special ed. Well—Dusty as a normal ed student walked off with not 1, not 2, but 3 academic awards for achievement in Reading, Social Studies and Science in 7th grade. Because of his special ed label from years

back, Dusty was automatically placed in the lowest remedial math class possible when he got to high school. He asked me to write one of my letters. I told him I would, but in the meantime, he was to self-advocate. The teacher he had was the greatest. She observed how her students processed solutions and not just final answers. She placed Dusty as well as several others into a normal class, where he made A’s and B’s all year. Later, Dusty did well in college calculus classes. He went on to earn, at 3 different colleges, a BS

in Psychology, an MS in Rehabilitative Counseling, and is completing a PhD in Counseling Education. Case history of Melanie: She was diagnosed as learning disabled in third grade, but only after I insisted on evaluating her privately through our health insurance. The school system took almost a year to evaluate our daughter and come to the same conclusion. Again, we were pressured to segregate our child. Even our pediatrician frowned at leaving her in a normal classroom. But Dusty’s experience had already taught

us exactly what we had to do—fight!! We refused to jeopardize the social and emotional needs of our little girl. Melanie did not walk off with any academic awards, but she held her own within the mean of her classes until high school. It was tough as a parent to watch her exposed to the insensitivity and disdain of a couple of adult teachers. This type of teacher let it be known in elementary school that Melanie was resented for her exceptionalities. Melanie was disliked by these few teachers who did not hide that they did not want her

in the class. I tried to teach her that the disabilities of these couple of selfish people far outweighed hers. At one time, our resilient daughter was not a behavior problem either at home or at school. She rolled with the punches. In fact she was the easiest baby I had out of all 7 of our children. But living with a learning disability and not having her needs met in school, took their toll about the time of the onset of puberty. Learning disability is a hidden disability –you cannot see it. It is so easy for teachers to misdiagnose

and mishandle. My daughter became feistier as some teachers became more authoritarian. She became far more interested in her social needs and pleasing her peers; pleasing teachers was a lost cause. Learned helplessness had set in, and misguided and undisciplined teachers just screamed at her louder. Special ed segregation in a resource class helped not at all. Though the system failed my child, I include her story as a case history because every child deserves an education with same aged peers. We cannot treat any child as disposable!

We just need to find better more effective ways to teach them. 1 out of every 5 children has some sort of learning disability. Melanie will have earned her high school diploma soon, and hopes to pursue her special interests in animal protection and reptile breeding. <<< To finish this lecture block on learners with exceptionalities, segregation needs to be mentioned a bit more. Segregating segments of the school population

due to low achievement, accelerated gifted achievement, disability, race etc. is not in the best interests of teenagers. Segregation promotes stigmatization, and social isolation. It ostracizes them; designates them as not belonging. To group children with low achievement problems into the same classes so that they are with “like” children similar to themselves, gives these children no exposure to good models. To group children of advanced and gifted achievement into the same classes

labels them as different and removed from regular kids. (Honors classes differ from GT classes in that the student composition changes from subject to subject.) To send children with disabilities to a special school miles away, is ignoring the need for education in the least restrictive environment—age-appropriate neighborhood school or the school a child would have attended had there been no disability. Transporting children in an effort to achieve racial balance and integration, to distant schools in neighborhoods that are very dissimilar

to home neighborhoods, is not in the best psychological interests of teens. Students do better if the schools they attend are similar in culture to the culture of the neighborhoods in which they live (Arunkumar et al.; Gray-Little et al.) Army Major General Stanford turned the Seattle public schools around. He said no to busing—no to charter schools—no to vouchers. More money was appropriated for groups with special needs, high risks or low scores. His story is told in a book on your list Victory in

Our Schools.



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