English Subtitles for TEDxSF - Dr. Brian Fisher - Outnumbered



Subtitles / Closed Captions - English

Bryan Fischer is the preeminent field biologist focusing on the systematic

they've are two kinds with a particular focus on ends brian's primary work is presently field work in Madagascar and Africa by documenting the species diversity and distribution at this invisible majority don't do Fisher is helping to establish conservation priorities by Amanda Cass care

identifying areas that should be set aside to protect the highest number species he is the curator and chairman of the entomology department at the California Academy of Sciences an executive director at the by by QMI biodiversity Institute and the Madagascar biodiversity centre

Brian received a BA from the University I'll at an MS from the University of Utah and the PhD from the University and California de vez please welcome to the 10 excessive stage doctor Brian fission breeding today I hope you learn about

ants and we've all met an to meet them in their bathrooms or on a picnic infected probably one of the few infection actually clearly identify but I don't know if that these amazing creatures are very important for our survival on planet Earth and for the glue that whole the ecosystems together be done that only old

every ecosystem across the world they dominate except in one country one continent icon named after answer honestly antarctica but otherwise you won't go and meet an anti matter where you go no ends kinda why they became sodom is due to their amazing social structure now if you dig deep into a colony you know get on your hands and knees look at the ground like a child you see

these creatures almost under every stone you pull over stone and see what looks like just a massive eggs but actually the lard anything these workers is all-female the log or female the workers are females actually soldiers are female what you don't know is that if these individual

because it they're amazing communication skills can at the colony as a super organism have special emergent properties now it takes on a team work going to be an aunt now if you are and and you were very hungry you found this juicy caterpillar would you sit behind a stone in your cell would you take it back to your nothing

not and doesn't have to make that choice in fact they can't its solid stomach up a super coney the and his actually the larva the attic the food back to the nest you get to the larva an alarm didn't have to be good to take this impunity it to the end the and take it into their social summit and walk around and see another instance they are you

thirsty and hungry and they've written be good at it you can try this at home couldn't Sun and for taking this to an amazing a green in the Southwest United States there honey pot know these new workers that are fresh in soft get bad into their social stomach charges ballooning out as balloons during that brief moment aplenty in the desert

when their sugar and water they get stuck ball for that during the dry season other and can walk up to these like refrigerators and they can just Exu nice juicy sugar sweets you can actually decrease up yourself and eap and they taste like jewels sugar so the most amazing social structures are are evident in the army these

ans are like leaderless would bring packs a 3-2 the fourth be done with everything in their way have to change their nesting site each day they can build the nest their own bodies by linking head to tail had detail making a fair bit like a star and the weave it all together in Iraq Mon and I thought would be great to bring these ants the San Francisco have them on

display per year so I did that I designed a vacuum cleaner went down to Costa Rica and suck them up but all that's in principle quite easy to do but actually in practice was quite difficult had a very early morning inspect them up in my modified shop that from Home Depot

and then I had them in this drama a garbage can me but a quarter-million and just sworn in a circle had to get home quickly if the Laura but we're not that you actually start in their own baby no been unbalance between star makes on the workers net would mean the mind the colony and had a dash to the airport leaving

everything else behind with his garbage can have these encircling wolf in this strain small come down a bit I got to the airport and I was checking in with American Airlines and old we cancelled your flight and I said why me too well the computer flight and said that you were carrying army ants we checked on the web in and they say the I mean skin

teleport's said only horses on the airplane don't worry in your head you know the local airline in and that airline had no problem flew here got the answer here and in San Francisco we fed the ants 25,000 cricket today and here they are ripping the crickets a pardon the kid loved it yeah watching those but it's actually more than that they actually the social

structure was amazing watch them build bridges across water changing the nest site every night and that is the real beauty of the and while I was in Costa Rica clicking the and factually back to this other beautiful little and called the trap giant notices long mandible jocelyn serbians we took these in 12

film how they captured prey we used a camera that shit that 50,000 frames a second here in Berkeley and watch this video on the amp his answer actually film slow down about seven thousand friends second me a.m. a yes sound sugar

animals crashes animal movement come to 140 miles an hour metal chef shush rush Porsche that if my Natural Bridge generated 109 your bodily for him has not just eating

but actually where jumping me he doesn't have to actually running the thing after the jump snapped a man with a hard drive and their life I are

follies yes %um it him for like yeah all another in factors a single world I can only be he'll by this high year 10 about why is it that densmore about his government might on we are but come in mind

full on the anyway young that young tacked on maybe you know along we're pounding important going on here hunt backbone and bring one thing

where do they live in for me personally in fact tomorrow morning I me from madagascar right going study look for all the possible Ann Sinnott area a chopping a rotten logs look in the ground and I come back with the specimen that's the Holy Grail the comeback with the new species

into mounted up and then traditionally we need to listen too is that as scientists we have to be more than just in our offices we need to be advocates we actually need to convince the public that there is a role a public fun in science and discovery and some particular

are easy to sell that way in fact and turn over more soil and earthworms for example they actually domini what I call the brown cycle it's easy to see the green cycle the big things when you walk into for behind that is turning over nutrients and insect expecially and dominate that turning over nutrients that we need for our own survival

what would the world be like without and is asking what would the world be like with out function you can maybe remove all the birds were forced you could remove the insect remove the and still have for and Dominic these world keep it all the ants in a big pile all 10 thousand trillion individual they weigh about as much as all human

what's sad is that you know so little about and that's why I began my study vance-owen to the tropics to study plants I was confronted with every plant being covered with these wonderful ansohn we knew so little about them so why is that why is it that we will

we know so little about an why is it that we seem more excited about this could mean life on Mars we are but it's coming life in our own backyard we know so little well whose job is it anyway to be the making these discoveries that is the field taxonomy taxonomy maybe you be know about this career path but it important has been

going on for tonight fifty years since the time of the NAIA taxonomists ask is very simple questions what living things exist where do they live in for me personally in fact tomorrow morning I me from madagascar right going study look for all the possible Ann Sinnott area a chopping a rotten logs

look in the ground and I come back with the specimen that's the Holy Grail the comeback with the new species into mounted up and then traditionally taxonomists spent the rest of their lives locked in a office alone majoring and had describing the species maybe just before the retired the producer bloc called a taxonomic

revision describing new species where they designate special specimens called the type that are in museums where that specimen bed detonate a new species but there's a problem ninety percent all these taxonomic works

are never used never know the value since the time when that means people turned museum something to them simply as warehouse the dead creatures not a poor don't understand the world around so you may think the taxonomy is it feels dead but no its not in fact it's in the middle this amazing breakthrough but there are some problems tax on mister dunne

not me personally but many other the many other groups have been sex for example have no living taxonomists alive actually identified and that's a problem the study birds less almost to the birds a already been discovered very few new bird species are being found

you like these at San aunt you're in trouble we discovered very little love the planet we estimate we've discovered only about 20 percent the living things that we share this planet and why does that matter matters because we'd be also begun what we call through final experiment we have

climate change dramatically in transformation and this is a problem after trouble trying to get this message across but I think now for the first time humans are beginning to realize that what they do does have an impact on the environment so if we expect to have society as we have it now

began to really understand becoming environmental problem for others to figure out how we are actually best using the world only will we hang out with the first generation to realize this mass extinction event we're going to the last generation to do something about it

the last generation to actually go out and discover who are sharing this planet with act actually do this in real time what we need is some type A Dow Jones index environment way to read in live our impact on the environment where we should put it back to where we should put a farm where we should put its

Road yet you don't have a tool that allows us to really understand in real time I impact I think it's now the job the taxonomy to come up with twirls and mechanisms for doing that medium graced diversity as a whole in fact kinda reinvent our connection to the environment Meadery reinvent relearn by a literacy

know what is buyer literacy know if you're illiterate and you go to a library what you see at most you'll see thinly slice stacks of firewood you won't grab the importance to our culture the points to our past and future

in the same thing if you see a fourth and your bio illiterate you want bill that we did not build understand mobile value your cut it down the cattle on it won't realize what you're doing what we need to do with somehow has weed increased literacy we need it increase by our literacy when you put on new glasses me the tools to do that me the pool stick understand

think net humans back to nature my work is centered in Madagascar now wanted to challenge myself to actually do research in Madagascar of the Costa Africa you relate research on ants to the people in Madagascar in the conservation life in Madagascar

america's good pre-release in terms the conservation geological history with attached a medic Africa about $220 million years ago broke away with India in you broke away but eighty million years ago hitting Asia from the Himalayas the end result is long isolation other members for example are endemic only to Madagascar even more striking if you're Africa

came over to Madagascar be surprised what you don't see you don't even with snakes undulate pythons and then people on they ride but only two thousand years ago bringing them the most inappropriate land use practices rice cultivation but cattle herding the end result is massive deforestation

but only about 10 percent to the force left in Madagascar the Act scientist to say what are those remaining patches should be conserved that's an environmental problem that we had very you answers basically had limited and birdied set up to try to get arthropods insect as part of an analysis confirming Madagascar now the challenge with how to do that

quickly so I set off in a large inventory campaign inventory 250 sites across Madagascar doing that would quickly became experts and when I call beautiful recovery we had yet weighs didn't rivers built special both that we could blow up and transport across it now if you've ever been on a raft in the pool had a

raft go bring I can happen quite easily on a trip across the river when you get there yet the hyde maybe 50 kilometers to the last mountain top leaders forest and we'll be there we go through a Peter routine Avanza 15 leaf litter beating trees thing %uh pitfall traps in what we commonly straps that capture Finance Act

some time to go to the canopy we bring a balloon that down drop like a pantyhose balloons attached to it and we jump onto and spend the night up there capturing insects up in the camp the end result is that we capture about a million sucks here and to do that we formed a museum in Madagascar B train locals to actually help us with that processing we ship a hundred

specimens 200 eighty taxonomists around the world now the prom with that we realize is that tax on a spur to slow the process taxonomy if it was going to be relevant and useful had to change what we had to do with actual speeded-up 3 wanted to democratize taxonomy to work with colleagues we started that digitized everything you know about and that held in libraries

any museums would create a website got aunt web cycle at porn which include images have all the ant species in linking that up with a original species description for anybody anywhere can actually make and describing aunt I'm hooked up with Google earth actually visualizes my place the more important we had a

at more data sets three started working with the large team that's called in a national park would have life we started sequencing so far we sequenced thirty thousand specimens ants we're getting new data with this project forget about five million actually specimens sample in sequence in the end result is that will have about

not a very small portion a wife described wield identified that using a handheld device in the future imagine if you could actually pick up in your backyard and identify it are simply sick in the small many DNA processing device at the size of a cell phone Magin anything to bite you or get you build actually identify

it quickly that want to link back that will have to actually be able to connect to nature we don't have now but it's in our reach now at nasa would actually discover another planet key with like quickly you all would jump on board to discover everything we know about

but here we are with only 20 percent the flight on our planet discovered in time is running out we have the tools like fast throughput sequencing parallel sequencing really asked the questions about diversity who we share this planet and where the last generation back we'll have a chance to actually go out and look and learn in connect you before it's too late

thank you Park 0



Video Description

Often found hip-deep in Madagascar mud, Dr. Brian Fisher is a modern day explorer who has devoted his life to the study and conservation of ants and biodiversity around the world. His research sends him through the last remote rainforests and deserts of Madagascar and Africa in search of ants. Although his subjects may be small in stature, they make a huge impact on their ecosystems. And what they lack in size, they more than make up for in numbers. By documenting the species diversity and distribution of this "invisible majority," Dr. Fisher is helping to establish conservation priorities for Madagascar, identifying areas that should be set aside to protect the highest number of species.areas that should be set aside to protect the highest number of species.

event video by: http://repertoireproductions.com/