English Subtitles for EET 125 Unit 7



Subtitles / Closed Captions - English

[MUSIC PLAYING] -Unit seven, back with a little more history-- a quick look at the Greeks. But first, I've always thought it's interesting to notice how technology

is such a fungible thing. And what I mean by fungible thing, is that it can mold and shift in all sorts of directions. The implication of the fungibility of doing technology and engineering, is that an item then can be developed

in twice the time, or for twice the cost, in half that time. So you can think of it as faster, slower, cheaper, more expensive-- it's very fungible. And this is due to the wide variety of possible solutions. If I have a lot of time, I can design you the lowest cost item.

If I have certain guidelines, I can make the simplest item. Or, I could make something that's easiest to use. Or I could try to put them all together. Or I could make something that's just a quick knockoff. Technology is extremely fungible. And as a result, companies routinely change and modify

the goals and priorities to meet their current needs. And so they'll set out to make the best this, and discover they don't have as much money. All of a sudden, cut the budget in half, they still get the item, but maybe it's not the highest performance,

or maybe it's more expensive to build. Technology is extremely fungible. And more flexible than most things. Well, the Greeks-- I'll start about 700 BC, when the Greek civilization starts to emerge in the technological sense, and have some impact.

And the peak is somewhere around 400 or 500 BC. So for a few hundred years there, we have the Greeks. And it does have a lasting impact on engineering technology, in that it starts to put more of an emphasis on the idea of science; literature-- literature in the sense of writing text and so

forth; art-- as I have mentioned, and we'll see later, a lot of technology and engineering is the art, things look right, feel right, very artistic; philosophy beliefs we have about certain things that really have an impact on what we do; and of course, education. Well, the Greeks borrowed very heavily from other cultures.

They borrow from the Babylonians, Egyptians, the Phoenicians, all these cultures mix information and put things together. The Greeks are notable in that they assimilate all these ideas, and make connections very rapidly, and they make links and associations between the idea

of science and engineering. And as a result, as you work with this, science becomes less about religion, and more about understanding things, and making things happen. And so this decoupling t starts with the Greeks, and moves apart.

Up till then, why even try to understand something? Because it's at the whim of the gods. But as we separate and start to believe that we can understand things, we start to make progress. Here are some of the-- by the way-- some of the things from the Greeks-- the ancient cranes,

we'll talk more about those, clocks, ancient lighthouses, and so forth. There are a lot of notable people that emerge in Greek times. Probably because the Greeks left a lot of literature that was incorporated into classical in the middle ages.

There probably were people before them that had, at least, as strong a positive outlook and philosophy, there probably were as great of teachers, playwrights, and so forth. But we don't have their work result, whereas we do from the Greeks.

So we have results from Plato, from Socrates, we read about them, they're in our history books. We see them. Probably the first, from a technological viewpoint, last from development was done in [INAUDIBLE], was probably. And in about 500 BC, a gentleman by the name of Thales,

who was an astronomer and a physicist-- by the way, astronomy and physics are inextricably linked, as is astrology at this time frame. Because the point of astronomy, understanding the stars and looking at them, is to predict things through astrology.

And the idea of physics is mainly to make some sort of regularity forecast, which is linked with the movement of the stars. So these become linked inextricably. And when you talk an astronomer, you talking an astrologer, and vice versa.

We tend to call them astronomers if they're more interested in studying the movement of the stars, astrologers if they're mainly interested in predicting the future. But they're inextricably tied together. Well, in 500 BC, Thales establishes a lectern--

this is where the word lecture comes from, by the way-- a lectern is a school. And the schools are little booths-- you walk up, you pay and listen to a lecture, and learn a lesson. And so it's just the start of regular school times

through different booths, and it's called a lectern. Now, he attracts a number of people. Pythagoras goes to this school in mathematics-- Pythagorean Theorem, for example. He attracts [? Annex ?] [? Mandrose, ?] who was a geographer, and historians.

This lectern attracts a lot of people, and it flourishes because it's under the protectorate of King Darius the first-- this is over in the Mesopotamia/Turkey region, and King Darius is providing protection for it, because there are a lot of people who would like to have closed it down.

So the first recorded technical school, if you will. And so the Greeks have started a technical school, where you go pay, get a lecture, and learn something-- apprenticeships. Here, by the way, is one of the typical sort of shops. We'll see some pictures of specific people's shops

later on, but one of the typical sort of schools or shop where you would stop and pay and get a lecture from the lectern. Well, Thales at his school, one of the ideas he pushes is the idea that nature has patterns that you can discover. This is a new idea-- is that there

are patterns we can discover. Because prior to this, people didn't even try, for the most part, to understand nature. They just decided it was at the whim of the gods. Who can understand whims? They don't try.

And so there's this philosophy that there are patterns. And this is important-- it is important to believe there are patterns, so you don't go out there to look for them. So he pushes this philosophy, it takes hold, it's a foundation of science. And so prior thinking-- it's capricious,

it's controlled by the gods. And by the way, even if there is a pattern, it's just too complex. So he pushes this notion, and people start to think about it, and look upon it.

This school, by the way, does not push the idea of experiments. Experiments, getting your hands dirty, are kind of beneath Thales and his school-- it's more you think about it. And so you discover the patterns by thinking.

That seems a little silly, to have an astronomer who discovered how the stars are by thinking stars, but this was the starting point, nonetheless. Eventually the Persian Empire is smashed, and a war with the Greeks-- the school is dispersed. Because after all, it is the Persians-- Darius,

the king-- who's providing protection for the school in the city, and flourishing. And it's not that the Greeks are against their fellow Greeks, it's that the whole city becomes enmeshed in this big fight. Everything's smashed, the school dispersed. Here is Thamos, by the way.

And here is the street-- early street-- this is in one of the cities of ancient city of Ephesus, is where this street is with the little stalls where you could go to get different lectures. Now, the concept of science lingers after the school's dispersed.

Thales has given this lecture to many, many influential thinkers in the Greek world, and it spread widely. And so they begin-- the idea takes root, and people start to work and think along that. And it's relaunched, then, at other places. This is key, because it does begin the movement

towards organized transmittal and accumulation of technical information. Without this belief, people aren't going to try, and we're not going to move ahead. Well, they did not connect, by the way, the idea of science-- the Greeks-- with the idea of engineering, or technical work.

There wasn't this connection. Yes, as we saw earlier, mathematics has a connection, and we do that. But the idea of science understanding nature isn't really connected. And the reason it's not connected

is the Greeks do have a great disdain for useful art-- that is, if you're a real, true, Greek citizen, part the upper crust, you don't get your hands dirty. You have slaves for that. You don't go outside and work on things, you have slaves for that.

This just isn't really your thing, and that's, again, why, even though you see this connection, you're not doing experiments in this school. You're thinking about it, because to do experiments is kind of like work. Still, abstract geometry flourishes in this era,

and gets developed and promulgated, and quickly goes into technical and engineering, to layout buildings, corners and so forth. They to develop more abstract notation and drawing styles, because it's fine to plan out and do estimates-- you're not having to build anything yourself, directly.

And so they emerge. But most of the science, even if they'd made a connection in this era, it's too primitive to be useful, anyway. But the notion's there, and the belief is there. And so the Greeks engineers are schooled

in what they think of as the sciences, and if you're a Greek engineer you do learn the sciences. And they're just of no use, and you don't really pursue it. Three terms come into popular use with the Greeks, that are carried forward today.

Architecton-- an architecton was the engineer in charge of a building. So if you designed and then watched the building be built, you're an architecton. Today, you're an architect. So this term starts to come along.

Then there's the technites-- the technite is an engineer who's in charge of manufacturing, who understands and has works that build different things, is a technite. Today we think of technicians, or technical person is what we think of.

And mech-- I'm probably slaughtering this word-- mechanopoios, the maker of machines. The early form of a mechanic, or a mechanical engineer. You notice we're starting to recognize separation of engineering specialties-- buildings, machines, manufacturing.

And so we have this recognition of different skills. Now, you could gain all three titles, but still we have a different title for doing different functions. All of these people, when they do work,

they start to develop a formal written contracting system. Now remember, we saw back in the early first legal codes, things like-- if you build a certain size wall, you're paid a certain amount-- Hammurabi-- that's dictated globally. Here, we see more and more individual contracts.

So I'm an architect, I'm going to design you a buildling-- you and I write a contract saying what I'm going to design, how much you pay me. And this is enforceable, it's a formal, written contract. That's what we do today. Now, generally these contracts, two to four pages.

Two to four page that says, I'm going to build a building, it's so big, four doors, five windows, a roof. That's about all you get in two to four pages. Not like our specs today, which can be huge. But still, it's more detail, and it's more specific-- by the way, spec, specific--

than it used to be. Most of the details were added by whoever you hired. So if you hired an architecton and told them to build a building, and you signed a contract-- so big, so wide, columns in the front-- they filled in the details.

Now, of course, you'd interact on the details and so forth, but still, they filled in the details because they weren't part of your contract. Generally, though, if you're a good engineer, you're very highly regarded, and you're fairly wealthy, and you become part of the ruling class.

So once again, we have that the technical people are very high in the hierarchy, and rise quickly. And if you have ability, we form the ruling class. Well, probably the highest bit of Greek engineering comes in architecture. Because the Cretes are very interested

in their public buildings, and spaces, and architectural items. And so among other things, the Greeks are building many cities, and so a new concept of city planning starts. And in this new concept of city planning-- see,

the old city just kind of developed. There were some layout, they kind of developed, and they built where things were. Now, the Greeks regularize and they plan their cities, and they make spaces for parks, markets, and so forth. This is an early form of zoning.

Today, when you lay out a city, things are zoned-- you could only build houses here, and you can only build industrial buildings there, and so forth. This starts really with the Greeks, where they lay out a city, and they

go, OK, this is a green zone for farming, this is for parks, and so forth. Public buildings, they put the public buildings in the central area of the city. This, of course, is carried through today, where we talk about downtown-- or the center of the city,

and that's public buildings and shopping and marketplaces. It's not-- public buildings aren't on the outside, they're in the center of the city. And this is a Greek notion. They wind up with two main styles of city-- the grid system, which we already saw,

and mainly a military type layout, north, south, east, west, very regular, and hub and spokes. Their both-- hub and spoke, by the way, is Washington DC. Both of these are still in use today. Here's a basic grid, again-- just north, south, east, west. And you have different blocks that

are set out for parks, green zones, public buildings, apartments, whatever they are. And here is the idea of a hub and spoke-- you have these big rings of transportation rings, going round and round and round. Those are the hubs, and then you have the spokes

that cut back and forth. This is more like Washington DC. And they're both used and both developed fairly widely. Because of the cost involved, the Greeks are building somewhat smaller scale than like the Egyptians.

But the Greeks want to be huge scale, and impressive. And so they start to think, how can they best make use of the smaller scale, but still make it look enormous? And so they start to develop things such as perspective, for example.

And perspective, in a Greek perspective, for example, if you stand at a column-- here's a column-- and you look at it, it looks like the top's really up there. But if you measure what's happened, is the bottom is much wider than the top.

So there's a taper-- this creates a type of optical illusion, so the building, the column looks much taller than it is. They apply this same notion to all sorts of public buildings. So although they are beautiful buildings, and large, they also look much bigger than they are.

Now, the Greeks also develop a basic understanding of acoustics. And so their buildings are built in such a fashion-- because they don't have amplifiers-- that you can stand in certain places, and your voice will bounce off the rocks

and be heard everywhere. They use a lot of their-- I mentioned-- optical illusions. They're all over on their buildings. The idea that you could make something look bigger, more massive, more impressive than it really is. They start with the idea of reinforcing--

they start to put in metal reinforcing in things. Part of this time, things were largely mud brick. Well, there is reinforcement, I guess, in the sense of straw. But they're mud brick, or they're all stone. Now they start to-- the Greeks, in order to save money-- are starting to make things in pieces,

and assemble them. And so they're reinforcing them with metal. And they introduce, as part of this, pinning, caulking, planing-- a whole raft of architectural building technology, so you could make smaller things into bigger.

Here, for example, is a close-up view I took of the Parthenon. Notice the columns have all these lines in them. To save money, the Greeks would make these columns in the shape of a wheel. In the middle of each of these columns is a hole. You put a pole through the hole, and now you

could roll it along. Far less manpower. When you get the site, you roll it up, flop it over, so they're laying on top of each other. You stack them up, and when you're all done, then you cut the fluting in.

That way you don't have to line them up, or anything. Much cheaper, much faster, and still very impressive. When you flop it over, to keep it from movies sideways, you put a little piece in the middle, that points up. That's a pin, so they won't move sideways anymore. This, by the way, is also part of the problem,

why they're breaking with modern air pollution. Because these pins are corroding. And as they corrode, they expand, as they expand, they break these columns apart. Still, this is how it's done. Now, they also put blocks-- if you look along

the top up here, you'll see, instead of one long piece of stone, you can look carefully, it's a whole bunch of blocks. Those blocks, in order to hold them together, they chiseled a little groove in the side, and they've driven a wedge in.

The wedge holds them together. As depicted here, you can see how the wedge might work. And therefore, they can make smaller blocks, carry them, put them in place, wedge them together. When you look at it, it looks like one big piece of stone-- unlike Pharaoh, who actually did a big piece of stone,

and carried it. Because the Greeks, although they have slaves, they aren't as wealthy as these old kingdoms. They're paying more smaller scale. They have more citizens who expect to be served, fewer slaves.

How many fewer? Well, I've seen lots of estimates. In Egypt, for example, an estimate I've seen was for every noble-- who really did not work-- there was between 10 and 20,000 people employed and guarding, working and so forth.

Greek culture, we're talking about for every person, there's a few hundred. So far less scale. They have to have a bigger portion happy, so they're getting more interested in cost, and they're paying more attention.

They come up with these sorts of items-- pinning and caulking, for example. Metal reinforcing, well, metal reinforcing-- here's a drawing, again, showing some reinforcing from one to the other, and how they would pin between the two columns. By the way, this is not a totally unique concept.

Later, here you will notice a column from the Mayans-- the lovely chick there is my wife, leaning against, holding it up. These were built similarly-- these were made round, put a stick through, roll them up. Set them down-- when they set them down,

they pinned through with a form of iron wood to hold it together. Very similar to what the Greeks did, only, of course, much later in time. Things are invented and reinvented all the time. Here is a corner that shows some of the reinforcing.

And you notice, if you look carefully, you could see it's drawn-- you can tell the bottom is bigger than the top. So it looks taller when you look up. And then you have the stack on top with the pinning, which looks like one solid piece,

but it's really several pieces pinned together. One thing too, by the way, is these Greek forms tend to follow the traditional materials. And I mentioned that before-- this structure, oftentimes structures carry forward, and it has no purpose.

It doesn't change till it really needs to. So at this point, we see a lot of things being carried forward. So you have, in stone, for example, you have the wooden forms of cornice-- what looks like an old wooden cornice.

You have pegs are carved into the stone, and a lot of these buildings look like the old wooden ones. Here, for example, is a roof beam and the detailed joining. If you look carefully, there are pegs in the stone here, and there's parts of supporting beams carved in the stone. It looks a lot like the wooden counterpart.

Well, other building skills continue-- it's not like they get rid of building skills. For example, paving project, they have a huge paving project about 400 BC, it's called the Diolkos-- this is a paving project that runs along the isthmus of Corinth.

The isthmus of Corinth is a spit of land, dividing sea routes. And they run a road over there, so they can haul ships across, and pave it. It's about four miles. Here, by the way, is a portion of that paving that still exists-- I went and saw it

when I was down in Corinth. Eventually, there is a canal cut through this part of Corinth, dug through here so ships can sail. But first there is this paving project that runs across-- impressive road work. Another example is water gets developed and worked.

For example, a gentleman by the name Phiax, he's in the 300s BC, he builds a complex water system. His water system, as far as we can see, is the first to employ tunnels, channels, and tanks. Remember, we had water systems back with Mesopotamians-- they build tunnels, they brought the water down.

But then they pulled it up. They did also have some reservoir systems, for example in Nineveh, where buckets would bring it up and put it in a tank. They didn't really put it all together in one overall system, but the Greeks, seeing this, adapt it,

and made it more sophisticated. And so they have a whole system of tunnels, channels, tanks-- very unique in its complexity. So here, for example, are some old pipes from this water system when I was over in Greece, looking around.

So the older technologies do continue, and continue to get adapted and developed. Now, towards the end of the Greek period, there arises an anti-scientific bias. You see, they get this idea they can understand, and discern patterns, they are putting

in machinery, and mechanism, and developing the old techniques. And it's getting more and more a respected part of society. And what happens towards the end of the period? Well, that people with the old ways-- the manual ways-- start to react that this is not noble. Their philosophy hasn't really changed enough, yet.

There are, as I say, maybe 100 slaves for every Greek citizen, so they can get things done without a lot. And the Greeks had this great idea of honor, hubris, their glory, and so they start to see this as a negative thing. And we start to hear backlash.

This is mainly interesting because we see this same sort of thing at different times in history. For example, the industrial Revolution in England, there's a big backlash against machinery, and it's not noble, and it's wrong, and so forth and so on. In the '40s to '60s-- which we'll talk about later--

there's a backlash. Technology is killing us, and awful. And as the changes come, there's a certain segment of society that looks back to the good old days and says, these new changes are wrong. Of course, what happens is the technology

and the engineering, as it moves ahead, is making things better and easier. And we are making progress. And so we may have a backlash for awhile, but eventually the backlash peters out, because people want the improvements, again.

Well, towards the end of this time, Pericles, for example, who's the ruler of Athens, he wasn't actually anti-scientific himself, anti-technology himself, but as a politician, he cooperates with the movement. They get a big debate.

Socrates is one group of the debate. And Socrates, quote-- and this is recorded, one of his quotes is, "Greeks should refuse to take on such matters," speaking of such matters be technical matters, calculation, "since the problems of natural phenomena are too difficult for human understanding to fathom--

or are of no importance to human life." And so, rejecting the philosophy that you can understand nature, that's it's too complex. We shouldn't be wasting time and resources on this. And if we can't understand, ah, it's trivial stuff. Nobody cares anyway.

Plato, Plato kind of sneers at experimental science, because Plato, philosopher, Greek, you think about things. You don't do things. You don't get your hands dirty, you're a Greek. The slaves get their hands dirty. So Plato takes a different stab at the idea of science,

starting to do a little experiments, and work on things, some Greeks are. And he says, "That knowledge, only which is of being and of the unseen can make the soul look upwards. And whether a man gapes at the heavens, or blanks at the ground seeking to learn

some particular of sense, I would deny that he can learn for nothing-- of that sort is science. In astronomy, as in geometry, we should employ problems, and let the heavens alone." So if we walk around and we think all day,

we will understand the stars, how far away they are. You want to know how something burns? How an explosion works? We should sit down and think about it. We don't study it, we don't do experiments, we don't check on it.

Very anti-science sort of-- it's bias. So on the one hand, say, ah, we don't even try, it's too difficult. The other hand say, well, if we do try, we don't actually do anything. We think about it. Back to the old ways is kind of the idea

at the end of the age-- just a typical sort of backlash. Well, still many Greeks are doing things. Here's the remains of an old [? screwdriver ?] from the 800s, this is an approved version. And again, here's how it's used in irrigation. There's still activity.

For example, we know of one gentleman, Archytas of Taras-- he was a scientist and engineer, a Greek citizen-- he invented, for example, a flying bird using compressed air. He compressed the air, and this bird would take off. He began the study of mechanics-- of systematic study

mechanics, leverage and so forth. He invented the screw. Although there is this type of pump, there isn't a screw to connect things together. So he invents the screw. And he was a friend of Plato, so even though Plato

has a strong bias against doing something, he still can be friends with people. And so there is this mixture going on, and there's still activity going on. Another example, for example, was Eupolinus.

He was an architecton-- he was an architect-- he dabbled in hydro science. And he did early work on exploring pressure, he had some concepts for water systems and how you put tanks up and run pressure into town, and so forth.

Now, by the way, although we know these people did these things, we don't have any detailed models or drawings, because he didn't leave us textbooks-- or at least none survived-- textbooks and detailed examples. We just have read accounts that they worked on these things,

and made some things that worked. At the very end, though, of the Greek period, just as Greek civilization is being overwhelmed, there is a real start of an emphasis of applied science. So what happens is they start off thinking science might work.

They do apply and develop abstract geometry, and get a little more technical-- develop the old technical sciences. Then there's a backlash. And then war comes-- war changes lots of things. War comes, and all of a sudden all the Greeks were objecting.

Now flip [INAUDIBLE], and they start to think, applied technology, applied science. If we can use these ideas and techniques to defend ourselves, to win the war, wonderful. Pericles, for example, right at the end of his rule, he suddenly becomes enamored of the military rules.

And so he funds Artemon to develop new battering rams and movable sheds. Why? Well the cities have gotten bigger, and the old battering rams that we've seen before aren't successful, and he wants better, bigger,

faster. And so he starts to fund technology to do it. He finds the development of the flamethrower. The flamethrower first appears with the Greeks. And it's very, very effective-- here is depiction of a flamethrower in a sea battle,

very effective in naval warfare, especially. This is later used, by the way, by the Spartans in the Peloponnesian War, extremely effective. They also develop Greek fire. Greek fire, is an ancient form, if you will, of napalm. It's something you spray, and it burns like crazy,

and you can't put it out. And it goes with the flamethrower. So they go through this evolution. But at the end, they're realizing, we need some of the advantages, and they're back to pursuing technology, and pushing it.

Dionysios, who was an elder ruler of Syracuse, is 400 BC, he finds the first known research center. Up to this time, when people developed things, it's someone here, and someone there, and we build a few things here in this city. But now this gentlemen realizes that if he can get weapons,

if he can get new techniques, if he can defend Syracuse, he could take over regions. He wants a research center to develop lots of things. And so he starts to offer large sums for very best technites and mechanopoioses-- in other words, the best people at manufacturing,

and the best mechanical people come here and I'll pay you to invent things. And it is said, quote, "He gathered skilled workmen, commandeering them from the cities under his control and attracting them by high wages, from Italy and Greece as well as Carthaginian territory.

He divided them into groups in accordance with their skills, and appointed over them the most [? conspicious ?] citizens, offering great bounties to any who created a supply of arms." So great rewards for inventing things. Notice he's organizing them into groups to attack certain problems-- it's a research center.

A military research center, but a research center. And when he does that, lots of inventions start to pour out. Again, as you put more clever people together, and give them resources, ideas multiply, inventions multiply. For example, they come up with a multi-tier oar-driven ship, with multi rowers per oar.

Now, this is very important, because in naval battles they often ram each other and try to outrun each other. And the biggest source of power-- assuming there's not a huge wind blowing-- are rowers. And it's very hard to get more than one rower per oar, but they figure out how to do many rowers per oar.

And it's very hard to get four, five, six, rowers high, but they figure out how to do that, too. They come up with a catapult. The first catapult is basically a large mounted crossbow, and it shoots a six-foot long dart. Fairly awesome. You light it, you send it into a ship, burn the ship down.

And you send it into an army, you kill an elephant. It's huge. They come up with new flamethrowers. The first ones threw flames a little ways, now they can throw them and send up to 50 yards--

probably not that far, but that's what it said. New flamethrowers. The idea of a flying bridge-- flying bridge, bring a tower on the ship, and the bridge is up like this, and it flops onto the next ship. Flying bridge, very important.

Cranes-- cranes first really make an appearance here. What are the cranes for? Well, the cranes are to drop rocks, and pick up ships. You mount them, for example, you mount a crane, for example, on the wall of a tower, right next to the sea coast. And you put a supply of rocks there.

And as the ships come up, and they're trying to get up to the wall, the crank picks up a rock, brings it over, drops it on the ship. Very effective. Cranes come out. Here, by the way, is some Greek armor from around this period.

That is also improved with layering, and they figure out how more and more detailed composites and layering can strengthen their arm. Which is a very early form of composite, very effective. Here are some other crossbows that emerge. For example, this one you crank back individually.

It's mounted on a stand-- it's kind of like a sniper's gun, if you will. The first recorded use of all these weapons that emerge-- although some are sold and given other places-- but the first real recorded use of this large number

was against [? Moeta, ?] which is a Carthaginian colony. And here, a very small force people beat back a large defensive force under Himilkon. Now, we're talking about odds of 50, 60 to one. They've given enormous advantage out of all these weapons-- just like we see today, when we look at modern battles that

have happened where one side has muskets, and the others bows. Here one side has advanced flamethrowers, and cranes, and so forth and so on, besides the old swords and armor. And so they are losing. This, of course, shatters many people's ideas,

and it's kind of the breaking of resistance against the idea of technology and applied engineering, because it's clear that if you have these things, you're going to win. So everybody wants them. So they give up and decide, we're going to go this way.

So we've gone the complete route under the Greeks from science, great idea, reject it, endorse it, everyone has to have it. According to Greek historian, Hiskos, talking about this battle, he says, "Himilkon attacked the first ships, but was held back by the multiple missiles--

for Dionysios had manned the ships with a great member of archers and slingers"-- they were using these six-foot darts, they could shoot a long ways. And they could shoot the people defending long before they got there, and they could set thing on fire a long ways a way.

And they slew many of the enemy by using from the land, catapults-- sharp pointed missiles. Indeed, this weapon created great dismay, because it was a new invention of the time. As a result of this weapon, Himilkon was unable to achieve his design, and sailed away.

Small force beat back a huge force, using new weapons. It was a real change. The battle was told widely, everybody changed their thoughts-- we need technology. And they start to embrace it. Following this battle, one of the kings

declared, "Oh, Heracles, the valor of man is extinguished." This quote is famous in the sense that it expresses the idea that, we give up. We can't just go out and do brute force, we have to have the machinery. The technical and the machinery is

taking over-- the valor of man, a single man, strong in the arm of the sword, is going to lose. And so we have the change in philosophy that we must have this, we must incorporate this-- at least in the military. And we start to accept the technical as every day

part of life more and more, and we want it. Well, some of the lasting notions of this period Greeks-- the notion of science, the belief that there are patterns you can understand and use-- very important. Prior to this time, we just didn't think that happened. And so, although we maybe could have discovered things,

people didn't, because they didn't try. If you think something's too complex and arbitrary, why spend the two years' effort to understand? You don't. Once you believe you can, you're willing to spend time, effort, and work at it.

And so this notion takes root-- very important. It's part of our philosophy today. The connection of science and engineering, that once we discover these patterns they should be useful and technical, is-- it happens here, now.

They are struggling from the disdain that the Greek society has for contact with the physical world. And so this trouble, this disdain, does inhibit them. But still there are people who break through. By the way, this still happens today.

You find people who say, well, I don't want to get my hands dirty. You know, they'll at someone doing experiments, eh, it's beneath me. They want to go off and do numbers or calculations. Well, fine, but numbers and calculations are good,

but they haven't really won the war. What won the war? People who did experiments, built things, and could do both. And so we still have this disdain for the physical world today, that somehow thinking about things

is better than doing things. But I think, by and large, society recognizes, has long since recognized, doing both-- that's really what's needed. It's also clear at the end of this, by the way, that the science benefits more from the technology than vice

versa. And what I mean here is, it's also clear in this period, they're building and developing things before they can calculate and understand them. And this, again, gets back to the contextual knowledge. The contextual knowledge is still leading.

The scientific knowledge is helping, but the contextual knowledge is still what's most important, and it's first. The Greeks took the algebra from the Mesopotamians and the Egyptians, the basic ones.

They further develop it, regularize it, work a lot on it, and they lay a real strong foundation for abstract engineering. So, now they're not into calculus or that, yet. But still, they have a whole series of rules and theorems that allow us to do much more complex mathematical analysis

of structures and forces and so forth, that couldn't have been done previously. So they lay that foundation with a new geometry, a fair amount of abstract mathematics, a lot of symbolic notation and drafting-- they get much more regularized in symbolism, which is, of course, extremely important.

And their drafting styles get better. One of their lasting influences is the idea of a research center, or a skunk works. We like to talk about skunk works-- skunk works, usually when people mean it, means you threw a whole bunch of people together to work furiously to solve

a problem in a short time-- skunk works. A research center is usually in the context of they're working longer term to solve things. Still, this starts with the Greeks. First one recorded, it's of military nature. It persists as largely military for centuries,

until it gradually, in modern times, encompasses more consumer goods. The reason persisting in military-- that's where the money is. But still, very important notion-- you put the best and the brightest together,

have them work on common problems, and they just spit out enormous numbers of solutions-- the old multiplier game. So that idea starts back here with the Greeks. They have some notion of new materials, again. They're willing to experiment, and put things together.

Probably composites is-- the idea of composites-- is one of the key ideas that, somehow, if you layer and put things together, the whole is stronger than the pieces. And they do this mainly with armor, but it is something that persists.

And of course, today, composites are a key part of materials, where you embed different things together, and the whole is stronger than the pieces. Iron reinforcement of buildings starts here. Yes, it's just a little pegging and pinning, but it starts here.

And of course, it's very important, as we use more and more concrete-- with the Romans and on until the modern times-- but the idea of reinforcing, it really starts here. Overall then, in total the Greeks gave us the notion of science and its place, and philosophy,

advances in mathematics, the idea of R&D center, and a new look at materials. And of course, they did continue and refine other things. For example, the notion of contracts, I pointed out, got more specific and more details. They did improve the legal environment

to make more details there. The idea of regular lectures is something the Greeks contributed. Up to this time, the training, remember, was apprenticeship, and you do have talks and so forth. But now we have regular schools and lectures.

So they contribute that, and take the next step, there. Well, this is basically the Greek period and some of their contributions. Again, laying more structure and ways of doing things, philosophy that we carry forward and influences us today. Next time, we're going to move on

to talk a little about the Romans and what they contributed, and some of their lasting contributions-- many contributions are from the Romans-- and we'll move on, then, from there. You take care. Have a good day.

Bye now. [MUSIC PLAYING]



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