English Subtitles for Search for the Super Battery - Documentary



Subtitles / Closed Captions - English

helping you there in the new knife in

your pocket with the hole in<font color="#CCCCCC"> the sky for</font> <font color="#CCCCCC">you and on</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> your mind what's going wrong</font> with our<font color="#CCCCCC"> battery</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> on this phone off for</font> the last few decades batteries have powered a revolution in personal electronics changing our lives and now

they're headed for<font color="#E5E5E5"> our cars our electric</font> car is becoming a thing yes they are <font color="#E5E5E5">even the grid renewable energy means</font> that we need energy storage but are<font color="#CCCCCC"> we</font> already pushing their limits anything which is able<font color="#E5E5E5"> to relieve a lot of energy</font>

that is a potentially dangerous thing or <font color="#CCCCCC">can they</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> be better I'm not being any</font> fireball we've got to<font color="#E5E5E5"> work with</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> people</font> that<font color="#E5E5E5"> want to introduce the true next</font> generation battery there is deafening <font color="#CCCCCC">arrays who will invent the next big</font>

battery technology the<font color="#E5E5E5"> deck stacked</font> against all of us but the rewards are so big and we beat the odds as we search for<font color="#E5E5E5"> the super better right now on Nova</font> the lowly battery we barely notice you when you work and we curse you when you

don't Dora the no-show the missing ingredients not included and when you die a piece of us dies as well face <font color="#E5E5E5">battery you</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> have issues but cheer up my</font> humble friend things may be changing scientists all over the world are<font color="#CCCCCC"> in a</font>

race to<font color="#E5E5E5"> make you better making powerful</font> to make you cleaner make you cheaper to make you<font color="#E5E5E5"> into</font> a super battery it won't be easy but the stakes<font color="#E5E5E5"> are huge</font>

warmer temperatures more severe storm higher sea level what's causing<font color="#CCCCCC"> all this</font> climate change scientists virtually<font color="#CCCCCC"> all</font> agree burning fossil fuels the oil gas coal that have powered our civilization of<font color="#CCCCCC"> Jenelle the challenge is to make the</font>

switch to other forms of energy like renewables solar and wind and to trade our gasoline burning vehicles for greener electric ones but all of these are missing the same critical component the right energy storage a battery in

science transform this Clark<font color="#E5E5E5"> pants of</font> energy into<font color="#CCCCCC"> the super storage of</font> tomorrow I'm David Pogue and if<font color="#CCCCCC"> that</font> perfect future batter exists I'm going <font color="#E5E5E5">to</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> find it</font> because you never know when you might

need one [Music] all right castaway deserted nothing to survive with I wit let's take<font color="#E5E5E5"> inventory</font> luckily I have a knife hmm phone charging cable and yes a phone gonna be

easy hello 911 no no no no it's<font color="#CCCCCC"> bad</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> make</font> this phone work I need<font color="#CCCCCC"> a portable source</font> of electrical power I need a battery hmm what do I remember<font color="#E5E5E5"> about batteries a</font> battery always has a positive electrode a negative electrode with something

called an electrolyte in between when there's an external connection between the two<font color="#E5E5E5"> sides the battery starts working</font> first the negative side reacts the electrolyte and electrons are set free as they travel through the<font color="#E5E5E5"> circuit they</font>

do useful things like produce light when they reach the positive side electrons <font color="#CCCCCC">are reabsorbed chemical reactions where</font> one material gives up electrons to another are common that's what happens when a fire burns or rust<font color="#CCCCCC"> Forks or</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> even</font>

when you breathe so building a battery isn't that hard all you need are the right materials like the kind of stuff you might find<font color="#E5E5E5"> on</font> a beach the<font color="#E5E5E5"> ingredients for</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> a battery a</font> negative electrode and aluminum can a

positive electrode this case they've got some charcoal in my<font color="#CCCCCC"> pant and finally an</font> electrolyte I have some fresh organic tea water the good news is this aluminum can battery actually works and if<font color="#E5E5E5"> I had a device</font>

<font color="#E5E5E5">that could measure the voltage I could</font> show you the bad news is I need 50 on all right you can one battery one dead phone this is the moment of truth it's charging Collison I'm 11 oh oh I me to hear your<font color="#CCCCCC"> voice listen I</font>

was<font color="#E5E5E5"> on this cruise ship and I fell</font> overboard I<font color="#CCCCCC"> think somebody</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> pushed me and</font> now I'm<font color="#E5E5E5"> on this desert I want to know</font> where<font color="#E5E5E5"> I am can you landmark look for a</font> landmark actually<font color="#CCCCCC"> never mind in truth charging a</font>

smartphone from an aluminum can battery <font color="#CCCCCC">is really</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> difficult my cheap low power</font> phone barely let me make one call but the point is making a bad battery is easy<font color="#E5E5E5"> making a good battery well that's</font> hard and I've asked the experts I don't

know if I<font color="#E5E5E5"> would call it a super battery</font> but to<font color="#E5E5E5"> get to the next</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> generation of</font> battery it have to be higher energy density energy density which is how much <font color="#E5E5E5">energy you store in a given volume what</font> that means<font color="#E5E5E5"> to the consumer is that you</font>

might<font color="#CCCCCC"> be able to run</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> that device for a</font> longer period of time optimistically speaking we should be able to double or triple the energy density in the<font color="#E5E5E5"> next</font> <font color="#CCCCCC">ten years cost is another factor that is</font> hugely important cost<font color="#E5E5E5"> is</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> very important</font>

at the same<font color="#CCCCCC"> time you say safety safety</font> and<font color="#CCCCCC"> costs as you</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> can see can play</font> <font color="#E5E5E5">against each other ready can make a very</font> cheap battery it can be very unsafe those are just<font color="#E5E5E5"> going to be the</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> ones that</font> <font color="#E5E5E5">we look at all the time and they're not</font>

easy things to deliver so that's a lot to ask<font color="#E5E5E5"> of one battery but finding that</font> battery for electric vehicles may be critical to<font color="#E5E5E5"> fighting climate change</font> burning fossil fuels like gasoline units carbon dioxide a greenhouse<font color="#E5E5E5"> damn that</font>

traps heat causing warmer temperatures and climate<font color="#E5E5E5"> instability</font> transportation accounts for about a quarter of all us greenhouse gas emission cars and oil are linked very very strongly something like<font color="#E5E5E5"> sixty seven</font>

<font color="#E5E5E5">percent of oil goes for gasoline and 90</font> some percent of transportation fuel is gasoline the whole purpose of electric vehicles is to reduce the amount of carbon footprint to reduce the amount of <font color="#CCCCCC">of emission electric vehicles could be</font>

good for<font color="#E5E5E5"> the environment but it's going</font> <font color="#E5E5E5">to take</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> a lot to pry the gasoline nozzle</font> <font color="#E5E5E5">from our hands the funny thing is this</font> isn't the first time that electric batteries in gasoline have fought to win our automotive arts at the<font color="#E5E5E5"> turn of the</font>

<font color="#CCCCCC">century no one knew which technology</font> electric or gas power would dominate the nascent car industry in fact quiet electric powered cars were common sight on the streets of<font color="#CCCCCC"> New York learn more</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> I</font> pay a visit to one of the foremost

<font color="#CCCCCC">experts or at least one of</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> the funniest</font> Jay Leno and<font color="#E5E5E5"> he's got them insider info</font> on the car of tomorrow I think this is <font color="#CCCCCC">the</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> car of the future this is how</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> we'll</font> all be getting around electric this is the car<font color="#CCCCCC"> of the future well this is a</font>

1909<font color="#CCCCCC"> baker electric there's no pollution</font> this was<font color="#CCCCCC"> high-tech back in the day talk</font> about back to the future the 1909<font color="#E5E5E5"> baker</font> runs on energy stored in batteries why are you<font color="#CCCCCC"> have six batteries in front as</font> with today's electric cars you could

charge the batteries by plugging the car in<font color="#E5E5E5"> want to stop it exactly ten bucks</font> in those days there<font color="#E5E5E5"> were charging</font> stations all over New York<font color="#CCCCCC"> City</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> you want</font> to go over right dude of luck yeah<font color="#E5E5E5"> it's</font> run you know taking on course a button

please go stunned but<font color="#CCCCCC"> you liked it</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> you</font> got the user's manual on ya feat that's <font color="#E5E5E5">a good good Sonia but i'll show you how</font> <font color="#CCCCCC">some of</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> maintenance free these are all</font> you do is turn the key and you are that's the wheel ready to go go away

even today it's a great ride<font color="#E5E5E5"> really</font> quiet just the hum of an electric motor but back then electric cars still lost out<font color="#CCCCCC"> there batteries weren't dependable</font> and many were recalled by<font color="#E5E5E5"> the time the</font> problems had been sorted out a former

Detroit Edison employee Henry Ford had unleashed the extremely affordable gasoline-powered Model T a few<font color="#E5E5E5"> years</font> <font color="#E5E5E5">later one of its big drawback the hand</font> crank starter was replaced with an electric one that and the growing

availability of cheap<font color="#E5E5E5"> gasoline in rural</font> areas that lacked electricity eventually sealed the deal today thanks to climate change electric cars are<font color="#CCCCCC"> getting another</font> shot success probably depends once again on the battery<font color="#E5E5E5"> the best version we've</font>

managed so far is probably the one in your<font color="#E5E5E5"> pocket the batter in your phone</font> which uses the element lithium hoverboard is on<font color="#CCCCCC"> 5 and you also may have</font> <font color="#E5E5E5">heard they can be dangerous</font> hail mom this happened at a gas station

in Kentucky when his he cigarette battery exploded literally lighting his pants on fire this morning technology giant Samsung planning a massive recall then of course<font color="#CCCCCC"> there's the Samsung</font> recall over over two and a half million

cell phones because of lithium battery fires so if it can be<font color="#E5E5E5"> so dangerous why</font> lithium what makes that element both the bell of the battery ball at at times acquire II met to learn more about lithium I visit<font color="#CCCCCC"> my</font>

friend with all the elementary answers mad<font color="#CCCCCC"> scientist KO grey at his mad</font> scientist workshop on his<font color="#CCCCCC"> illinois farm</font> <font color="#E5E5E5">in the past halo has shown me the power</font> 0 of the illness humanity so what's the <font color="#CCCCCC">story on lithium seems like once you</font>

start digging into the battery world you hear about lithium a lot so what<font color="#E5E5E5"> is with</font> you yeah so let's see em is an element <font color="#E5E5E5">that you know happens to have properties</font> that make it extraordinarily well suited for delivering a lot of<font color="#E5E5E5"> electrical power</font>

in a very small light package and<font color="#E5E5E5"> I'm</font> guessing<font color="#CCCCCC"> because we're in stormtrooper</font> outfits that it's something dangerous it is<font color="#CCCCCC"> able</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> to contain</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> and release a lot of</font> energy and any<font color="#CCCCCC"> anytime you have anything</font> which is able<font color="#E5E5E5"> to release energy that is</font>

a potentially dangerous thing<font color="#CCCCCC"> Theo tells</font> me you can learn<font color="#E5E5E5"> a lot</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> about lithium</font> just by looking at its place on the periodic table high up means it has a low atomic weight that means lithium doesn't weigh much which<font color="#E5E5E5"> is you know a</font>

great thing if you had to make<font color="#CCCCCC"> a battery</font> to fly a drone or you know<font color="#CCCCCC"> it or</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> just to</font> have something that gives you a lot<font color="#E5E5E5"> of</font> <font color="#E5E5E5">power and doesn't weigh very much in</font> fact<font color="#CCCCCC"> even though it's a metal its floats</font> on water Oh silver thank you notes again

a wave nothing<font color="#E5E5E5"> Wow Theo also points out</font> that lithium sits on the far left of<font color="#CCCCCC"> the</font> table in the column called the alkali metals compared to<font color="#E5E5E5"> other</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> elements they</font> readily give up an electron exactly what you want for the negative electrode in a

<font color="#CCCCCC">during the lithium in my hand is doing</font> just that giving up an electron to <font color="#E5E5E5">oxygen in the air creating the blackish</font> lithium oxide on its surface<font color="#E5E5E5"> okay we</font> recall this oxidizing it is oxidizing it's basically rusting and its exact

<font color="#E5E5E5">same reaction as rust forming it's just</font> <font color="#E5E5E5">that you know iron rust is kind of a</font> reddish<font color="#CCCCCC"> flakey things lithium rust is</font> this kind of black coating when tail whips out the lithium coil I get an even better look at the oxidizing process

thanks to the foils greater surface area yes darkening it tarnish it like tarnish and that's more<font color="#E5E5E5"> or less</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> the same one</font> action<font color="#E5E5E5"> that would happen inside the</font> battery except inside the battery is happening in a very controlled way wow

it's not<font color="#CCCCCC"> Shane pretty</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> anymore my best</font> getting hotter<font color="#E5E5E5"> to super HUD the lithium</font> foil reacts quickly in the air but if you really<font color="#CCCCCC"> want</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> to see it in action try</font> water that was a great one<font color="#E5E5E5"> lightweight and</font>

willing to give up electrons easily lithium is nearly a perfect metal for use as a negative electrode in a battery but it turns out there's a big problem <font color="#E5E5E5">if you want that lithium metal battery</font> to be rechargeable remember the three

parts<font color="#CCCCCC"> to a battery</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> okay I left some</font> things out in a lithium metal battery and many others there's a separator like a piece of plastic to keep the electrodes apart<font color="#E5E5E5"> because if they touch</font> more on that<font color="#E5E5E5"> later that separator isn't</font>

completely solid and here's why when a lithium metal battery discharges<font color="#E5E5E5"> of</font> course there's a flow of<font color="#E5E5E5"> negatively</font> charged electrons through the wires on the outside but inside the battery there's also a flow<font color="#CCCCCC"> of positively</font>

charged lithium atoms or ions in the electrolyte they flow from the negative lithium metal<font color="#E5E5E5"> electrode through the</font> permeable separator<font color="#E5E5E5"> to the</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> positive</font> electrode which kind of<font color="#E5E5E5"> like an</font> <font color="#CCCCCC">apartment building houses the ions in</font>

its layers recharging the battery sends both electrons and the ion back the other way and that is when using lithium metal as an electrode runs into trouble scientists discovered that over time the <font color="#E5E5E5">returning lithium ion tend to clump on</font>

the metal surface building spiky tree-like structures called dendrites I get rougher rougher and rougher until they stick out like a finger from the <font color="#E5E5E5">surface and continue to get longer and</font> longer and<font color="#E5E5E5"> longer and eventually if</font>

those dendrites can reach the other side of the<font color="#E5E5E5"> battery which is the cathode or</font> the positively charged electrode and then<font color="#CCCCCC"> there's a short-circuit</font> instantaneous discharge instantly electrons blood across

releasing the battery's energy generating heat which in turn can cause fire and explosions after years of <font color="#CCCCCC">trying no one could find</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> a solution to</font> the lithium metal conundrum so scientists<font color="#E5E5E5"> invented and</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> alternatives it</font>

became part of our<font color="#E5E5E5"> lives in the early</font> 90s in products like the sony handycam they called it the<font color="#CCCCCC"> lithium ion battery</font> the key<font color="#E5E5E5"> to its success was replacing the</font> negative lithium metal<font color="#E5E5E5"> electrode with a</font> new apartment building a carbon

electrode that has lots<font color="#E5E5E5"> of individual</font> lithium ions when<font color="#E5E5E5"> the battery was</font> charged everything else still works the same discharging the battery sent the ions through the electrolyte over to the <font color="#CCCCCC">positive electrode recharging the</font>

battery sent<font color="#E5E5E5"> them back but now at least</font> in theory<font color="#E5E5E5"> all the welcoming spaces and</font> the layers<font color="#E5E5E5"> of the negative electrode</font> stop them from piling up into dangerous dendrites that meant lithium ion batteries were far safer than<font color="#E5E5E5"> lithium</font>

metal<font color="#E5E5E5"> ones but at a price they stored</font> far less energy the FAA has long Ward Airlines<font color="#E5E5E5"> of the potential</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> dangers</font> presented by lithium batteries and safer doesn't mean<font color="#E5E5E5"> completely safe let the</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> ax</font> my own batteries have already been

linked<font color="#CCCCCC"> to numerous cargo</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> freshers all</font> those battery fires you've been<font color="#E5E5E5"> hearing</font> about in recent years those are<font color="#E5E5E5"> lithium</font> <font color="#E5E5E5">ion batteries</font> to learn more about what really<font color="#E5E5E5"> goes</font> <font color="#E5E5E5">into a lithium-ion batteries i traveled</font>

to<font color="#E5E5E5"> Ann Arbor to check out the University</font> <font color="#CCCCCC">of Michigan's battery labs part of</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> its</font> energy<font color="#E5E5E5"> institute senior lab manager Greg</font> left has offered to<font color="#E5E5E5"> show me around and</font> even build one with<font color="#CCCCCC"> me turns out</font> <font color="#CCCCCC">lithium-ion batteries come in different</font>

shapes ok so this we've seen<font color="#CCCCCC"> before this</font> is like a watch battery right this is a little bigger than the standard double a absolutely that's a 18 650 and<font color="#E5E5E5"> you might</font> <font color="#CCCCCC">find that in a rechargeable power tool</font> an older model laptop or the tesla

roadster but<font color="#E5E5E5"> i've never</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> seen</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> this in a</font> power tool well no there's there's actually a bunch of them<font color="#CCCCCC"> in</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> there maybe</font> six or seven put together in series inside of that brick that you plug into the bottom<font color="#E5E5E5"> of ok and in this what for a</font>

phone yep you'd find a battery like that either in your<font color="#E5E5E5"> phone or a laptop or a</font> tablet computer device and you actually <font color="#CCCCCC">made all these in this room yes we sure</font> did that's cool walk me through<font color="#CCCCCC"> it good</font> sir I'm happily will Greg gives me a

whirlwind<font color="#E5E5E5"> tour of the process of making</font> an 18 650 he mixes up the ingredients <font color="#CCCCCC">for the electrode material which gets</font> based on to foil and slice into smaller roles then we enter through an<font color="#CCCCCC"> airlock</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> into a</font>

special<font color="#E5E5E5"> low humidity dry room any</font> moisture from water inside a lithium-ion battery harms the electrolyte once inside we put the rolls on this crazy <font color="#E5E5E5">machine which winds them together with a</font> roll of<font color="#E5E5E5"> plastic separator into a jelly</font>

roll let's take a closer look so if you have a top layer that's the separator yeah and pull<font color="#E5E5E5"> that off then we have our</font> copper and graphite negative electrode another layer of separator here and then the positive electrode layer that we

<font color="#E5E5E5">made together of lithium nickel</font> manganese cobalt oxide so every<font color="#E5E5E5"> lithium</font> <font color="#E5E5E5">ion battery that's in one of those</font> cylinders including the ones that are bundled together to make laptop batteries and<font color="#CCCCCC"> power</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> drill batteries</font>

they're all at heart a bunch of<font color="#E5E5E5"> these</font> ribbons that stretch the series of ribbons wrapped up together how after sticking the roll into a metal<font color="#E5E5E5"> can Greg</font> <font color="#E5E5E5">injects the last key ingredient the</font> liquid electrolyte the electrolyte is

the cream in the jelly roll it's what connects everything<font color="#E5E5E5"> together the</font> electrolyte the liquid solution that has lithium ions dissolved in it and when we charge or discharge the battery the electrolyte is what allows those ions to

travel back and forth between the positive and negative electrodes with the final steps of welding and crimping the top onto the metal can we were done somehow I expected more<font color="#E5E5E5"> because its</font> batteries like the 18<font color="#E5E5E5"> 650 for one of the</font>

other<font color="#CCCCCC"> lithium-ion</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> styles like these flat</font> ones and pouches that will determine<font color="#E5E5E5"> if</font> you<font color="#E5E5E5"> lecture cars are a viable option to</font> replace gas burning so far in the<font color="#CCCCCC"> u.s. plug-in electric cars</font> haven't had much success in 2015 they

made up less than<font color="#CCCCCC"> 1% of</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> all new car</font> sales there are a few reasons<font color="#E5E5E5"> to be</font> skeptical about a free<font color="#E5E5E5"> cars we the</font> biggest one<font color="#CCCCCC"> is fast</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> but costs of</font> electric car batteries are coming down dramatically and<font color="#E5E5E5"> they'll continue to</font>

<font color="#E5E5E5">come down for</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> the next</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> five years</font> they're<font color="#E5E5E5"> going to find out that more and</font> more people can afford to<font color="#E5E5E5"> buy an</font> electric car so that problem is<font color="#E5E5E5"> getting</font> solved as we speak the other concern is called range anxiety how far can you go

on a single charge surveys show Americans want<font color="#E5E5E5"> to be</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> able to go hundreds</font> of miles even<font color="#CCCCCC"> though the average daily</font> auto use is only around 40 but there is <font color="#CCCCCC">some justification for most of the</font> country roadside charging stations are

few and far between despite lackluster sales car makers continue to test the waters with lower prices and longer ranges like the Chevy Volt the first moderately<font color="#E5E5E5"> priced all-electric car with</font> a range of more than 200 miles for the

new Tesla Model 3 which has similar price and range anticipating a large demand Tesla plants produce<font color="#CCCCCC"> 500 thousand cars a year in the</font> latter<font color="#CCCCCC"> half of a decade but that would</font> require<font color="#E5E5E5"> the entire current worldwide</font>

production of lithium-ion batteries so they built this the gigafactory in Nevada when it's completed it will cover more land than any building<font color="#E5E5E5"> in the world</font> and it will produce batteries<font color="#CCCCCC"> float</font> faster than bullets from a<font color="#CCCCCC"> machine gun</font>

unquote<font color="#CCCCCC"> this</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> is</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> he I stopped in Tesla's</font> <font color="#E5E5E5">Palo Alto headquarters to find out where</font> all<font color="#E5E5E5"> those batteries fit in the current</font> Tesla Model S so the battery pack actually runs the length in the<font color="#E5E5E5"> width of</font> the vehicle so what you're seeing right

under here is our battery pack<font color="#CCCCCC"> oh the</font> batteries are using the batteries right here now<font color="#E5E5E5"> if i could go in there with a</font> screwdriver and rip that open what would the actual batteries look like are they just a whole bunch<font color="#E5E5E5"> of little double a's</font>

<font color="#E5E5E5">their little cells yes so we've got</font> about<font color="#E5E5E5"> 8,000 individual cells in their</font> thousands yes and do by any chance do they look like this in fact they do early on<font color="#E5E5E5"> tesla's</font> standardized on the 18 650 because of

its availability but at the gigafactory they'll switch to a bigger version which they claim is the best and cheapest in the world other electric car<font color="#E5E5E5"> makers</font> prefer the flatter pouch batteries like those made here for GM at LG Thames

plant in<font color="#E5E5E5"> Holland Michigan while I was</font> there I stopped in to see<font color="#E5E5E5"> Denise</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> gray</font> she is<font color="#E5E5E5"> the president and CEO of an LG</font> Chem subsidiary that does battery research<font color="#E5E5E5"> and design so we've heard for</font> years that electric cars are coming<font color="#E5E5E5"> soon</font>

but are they finally at least almost <font color="#E5E5E5">pure this plan makes exclusively</font> batteries for electric cars right like our electric<font color="#CCCCCC"> cars</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> becoming a thing yes</font> they are<font color="#E5E5E5"> yes they are we're still in the</font> early stages<font color="#E5E5E5"> but we're making</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> great</font>

progress and I think we're accelerating down that plan of having more and more electric light power trains on the road how many Americans will buy electric cars or how soon remains<font color="#E5E5E5"> to be seen</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> but</font> with more and more electric vehicles on

the road engineers are racing and make the lithium-ion batteries that contain even<font color="#E5E5E5"> better cheaper to produce</font> longer-lasting and most importantly safer <font color="#E5E5E5">I traveled to New</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> Mexico to visit the</font>

Sandia National Laboratories scientific <font color="#CCCCCC">Liana steel and</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> Josh lamb showed me the</font> battery abuse testing lab here they do all the things those warning labels tell you not to do with batteries to understand how they<font color="#CCCCCC"> sail it took me past</font>

a two-ton blast door to the testing torture chambers with a puncher overcharge burn<font color="#E5E5E5"> short-circuit and drown</font> batteries all ceilings and floors in the building are all made out<font color="#CCCCCC"> of concrete</font> reinforced<font color="#E5E5E5"> three barks if anywhere from</font>

12 to 14 inches<font color="#CCCCCC"> thick today they're</font> performing a<font color="#E5E5E5"> crush test where they'll</font> slowly smash the middle of<font color="#E5E5E5"> a battery</font> with up to 15,000 pounds<font color="#E5E5E5"> of force the</font> sort<font color="#E5E5E5"> of thing that could happen in an</font> electric car crash this is a hydraulic

lift here so it's<font color="#E5E5E5"> going to actually</font> start lifting up and that impact our they're going to start crushing the battery after a final check of the setup we<font color="#E5E5E5"> are ready</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> to go</font> maitresse are we ready to<font color="#CCCCCC"> start the test</font>

test is going now it sounds<font color="#E5E5E5"> like so we</font> can<font color="#E5E5E5"> hear we heard hydraulic just turned</font> on a little<font color="#E5E5E5"> bit on the hydraulic lift</font> the battery slowly Rises into the plunger can start<font color="#E5E5E5"> seeing the gap is</font> starting to close in between the plunder

in the battery [Music] you can see the plunger is crushing the inner battery cells a<font color="#E5E5E5"> surprising amount</font> still with no reaction but we're getting <font color="#E5E5E5">close</font>

[Music] your first hearing some kissing that's <font color="#E5E5E5">the battery</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> venting when it actually</font> starts to go into failure [Music] Oh

[Music] that's why we<font color="#CCCCCC"> weren't standing in that</font> room exactly so all<font color="#CCCCCC"> that energy that's</font> stored in that<font color="#E5E5E5"> battery is just</font> discharging all at one when the <font color="#E5E5E5">lithium-ion battery cell uncontrollably</font>

overheat it's called thermal runaway <font color="#CCCCCC">Liana and</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> Josh break it down from a</font> plunger crushed the inner cells of the battery until<font color="#E5E5E5"> a negative and positive</font> electrode made contact a short<font color="#E5E5E5"> circuit</font> <font color="#E5E5E5">just like when dendrites short out a</font>

battery electrons flooded across in a massive discharge creating heat which then turned some of the liquid electrolyte into gas that first open the batteries oil pouch and then the vaporize electrolytes ignited<font color="#CCCCCC"> that</font>

moment as presenting with flames all the fire and<font color="#E5E5E5"> sheets that off reactions and</font> other nearby<font color="#E5E5E5"> cells sending</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> them to</font> thermal runaway as well in the<font color="#CCCCCC"> end the</font> fire reached a temperature of<font color="#E5E5E5"> over</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> 1800</font> degrees Fahrenheit easily hot enough to

melt<font color="#E5E5E5"> the aluminum used in the battery</font> <font color="#CCCCCC">leanna & Josh show me some video of</font> other<font color="#CCCCCC"> town this is a</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> battery that's</font> <font color="#E5E5E5">getting overcharged and this is a nail</font> going into the center of a group of 18 <font color="#CCCCCC">650s the setter self ails gradually</font>

taking down the rest of them with it [Music] [Applause] from the videos<font color="#E5E5E5"> and having seen it here</font> myself one thing seems<font color="#E5E5E5"> obvious if there</font> were a way to get rid of the vaporizing

flammable electrolytes<font color="#E5E5E5"> that would be a</font> big<font color="#E5E5E5"> step toward making these batteries</font> paper and I'm<font color="#CCCCCC"> not the only one who thinks so</font> meet Mike Zimmerman he's a tufts university professor and material

scientist about five<font color="#CCCCCC"> years ago</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> he got</font> interested in lithium-ion batteries thinking there had to be a safer electrolyte Mike background is in plastics and I've come to take a<font color="#E5E5E5"> look at</font> what<font color="#CCCCCC"> he's invented so this is</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> your</font>

<font color="#CCCCCC">battery that's the battery it looks like</font> <font color="#CCCCCC">any other lithium battery inside one of</font> these said<font color="#CCCCCC"> okay think format same</font> voltage in voltage we think<font color="#E5E5E5"> this is an</font> unusual battery<font color="#E5E5E5"> it's the battery that is</font> much safer than conventional batteries

and upon any damage any puncture any cutting it who will not<font color="#E5E5E5"> catch on fire</font> did you say any cutting it<font color="#E5E5E5"> correct can I</font> make<font color="#CCCCCC"> a cut in movie up really it's not</font> going to jet fire into my face a woman before I do that let's consider these

examples from<font color="#CCCCCC"> YouTube</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> of folks poking at</font> lithium-ion batteries they reveal but it doesn't take much to create a dangerous <font color="#E5E5E5">short circuit</font> with disastrous results and now is it my turn bigger<font color="#E5E5E5"> little whatever you want</font>

I've online Wow yeah and guess what<font color="#E5E5E5"> the lights are still</font> on looks like a Houdini thing I mean this is<font color="#CCCCCC"> like make it a doily</font> salon come on I'm gonna make you a

<font color="#E5E5E5">little paper doll so what's the trick</font> compared to a typical lithium-ion battery Mike's replaced the liquid electrolyte and the separator with his <font color="#E5E5E5">special plaque to create a completely</font> solid battery unlike<font color="#CCCCCC"> the liquid</font>

electrolyte which easily catches fire like classic dis flame retardant and <font color="#CCCCCC">even though it's solid amazingly it</font> allows lithium ions to pass<font color="#E5E5E5"> through it</font> at a rate equal to or better than the <font color="#CCCCCC">current liquid electrolyte and here's</font>

the best<font color="#CCCCCC"> part the plastic physically</font> prevents dendrites from shorting out<font color="#CCCCCC"> the</font> battery that means<font color="#E5E5E5"> that Mike can go back</font> to lithium metal negative electrode potentially doubling his battery's energy density here's another<font color="#E5E5E5"> demo using</font>

an iPad with its original battery removed and in its place one<font color="#E5E5E5"> of Mike's</font> that's even bigger than<font color="#CCCCCC"> the last one cut</font> to pieces<font color="#CCCCCC"> and I'm going</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> to stick a</font> screwdriver through it like you saw in <font color="#E5E5E5">those youtube videos here we go</font>

[Music] so far I'm not seeing any fireball okay you've done it you've<font color="#CCCCCC"> made a battery</font> that doesn't explode when pierced it's the very<font color="#E5E5E5"> least</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> i'd expect this piece of</font> smoke<font color="#CCCCCC"> i would</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> expect</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> to</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> feel some heat</font>

there's<font color="#E5E5E5"> nothing yeah it's</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> because of the</font> solid plastic<font color="#E5E5E5"> electrolyte it's not</font> flammable and it's very insulated doesn't get too hot and it doesn't burn and it keeps walking<font color="#E5E5E5"> okay I was not</font> attend the cops club nice dude again my

mortgage to do high and the tax rates are insane and i dented my feather all right now<font color="#E5E5E5"> it's</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> not going to turn on now</font> oh come<font color="#E5E5E5"> on that's it a damaged battery</font> and yet no scope so clean no sparks do not try this with your iPad battery

so far Mike's kept his company's work mostly under wraps this in fact is the <font color="#E5E5E5">first television interview he's given on</font> it but<font color="#E5E5E5"> there's still more development to</font> go before<font color="#E5E5E5"> your new smartphone makes use</font> of it and if I were one of your critics

certainly there would be something I would attack you<font color="#E5E5E5"> for this gotta</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> be can't</font> be too good to be true right I think <font color="#E5E5E5">that development you know who's never</font> done we have<font color="#E5E5E5"> to do a lot of reliability</font> testing and<font color="#CCCCCC"> the scaling up aspect of</font>

this is going to be a lot<font color="#CCCCCC"> of work to</font> scale it up so we've got to<font color="#E5E5E5"> work with</font> people<font color="#E5E5E5"> that want to do that</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> I want to</font> <font color="#CCCCCC">introduce a true next generation battery</font> whether<font color="#CCCCCC"> Mike solid-state lithium battery</font> will come to market anytime soon it's

hard<font color="#E5E5E5"> to know if it does and if it can</font> double the energy density of the batteries and electric cars that would be revolutionary but electrifying cars as a strategy to battle climate change comes with a big caveat to have real

impact the source of their<font color="#E5E5E5"> electricity</font> needs to be green as well and that means cleaning up the grid that charges them if you're like me you don't<font color="#CCCCCC"> even think</font> <font color="#E5E5E5">about</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> it you flip</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> on a light switch or</font> you turn on something plugs into the

wall where does the electricity come from when was it created how does it arrive at<font color="#E5E5E5"> your house at exactly the</font> right time how did the electrical grid work the grid has been called<font color="#E5E5E5"> the most</font> complex machine humans<font color="#E5E5E5"> have ever built</font>

it is the<font color="#E5E5E5"> largest the most extensive has</font> the most parts and it also has a beautiful simplicity it's driven<font color="#E5E5E5"> by this</font> very simple energy in must equal energy out at every moment in time you<font color="#CCCCCC"> have to</font> generate electricity<font color="#E5E5E5"> over here at the</font>

power station at exactly<font color="#E5E5E5"> and</font> instantaneously the same rate that you use it over<font color="#CCCCCC"> here on all the customers</font> electricity is essentially instantaneous so it's a fraction<font color="#CCCCCC"> of a millisecond of</font> micro second and old because<font color="#E5E5E5"> it travels</font>

basically at the fraction of speed of light across the wire so we have to make <font color="#CCCCCC">it instantaneously</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> the moment you wanted</font> I have to make it matching the demand means constantly ramping up and down the amount<font color="#E5E5E5"> of electricity generated for</font>

example by turning up or down gas fired power plant or spilling more water over dance or even firing up an old diesel plant just<font color="#E5E5E5"> to meet an hour of peak</font> demand it's a constant complicated dance now as we try to shift away from power

<font color="#E5E5E5">plants running fossil fuels the</font> complicated dance that<font color="#E5E5E5"> matches</font> generation with demand has found some new partners renewables like wind and solar they can range in size from a huge wind farm generating hundreds of

megawatts of<font color="#E5E5E5"> power to the small solar</font> array on your<font color="#E5E5E5"> neighbor's house the dance</font> just got more complicated we're taking<font color="#CCCCCC"> a</font> complicated system and<font color="#E5E5E5"> making it a lot</font> <font color="#CCCCCC">more</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> complicated have to be able to meet</font> the demand still when the Sun doesn't

shine when the clouds come through and the output false when<font color="#E5E5E5"> the wind dies down</font> if<font color="#E5E5E5"> these new renewable but intermittent</font> sources of electricity<font color="#E5E5E5"> are going to play</font> a major role on the grid they require a <font color="#CCCCCC">new player energy storage I don't think</font>

renewable penetration can go higher <font color="#E5E5E5">without a robust energy storage solution</font> that's for sure in the<font color="#CCCCCC"> u.s. there's</font> already a little<font color="#E5E5E5"> energy storage on the</font> grid equal to about two percent of our generating capacity

most of it looks like this reservoir in Bath County Virginia it's been called the<font color="#E5E5E5"> largest battery in the world but</font> <font color="#CCCCCC">it's</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> not like any battery you've seen</font> the system is called<font color="#E5E5E5"> pumped hydro and</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> it</font> operates like a rechargeable

hydroelectric dam during the day<font color="#E5E5E5"> when</font> there's high demand<font color="#CCCCCC"> for power electric</font> company lets the water flow from an upper reservoir to a lower one<font color="#E5E5E5"> spinning</font> turbines and generating electricity but at night<font color="#E5E5E5"> when there's low demand they</font>

use the excess electricity generated by other plants to pump water back up<font color="#E5E5E5"> to</font> <font color="#CCCCCC">the higher reservoir recharging it today</font> about 99% of all grid storage the United States<font color="#CCCCCC"> is pumped hydro it would be a</font> relatively inexpensive way to store

excess energy from renewables for later use except for<font color="#CCCCCC"> one problem you need to</font> write geography for<font color="#E5E5E5"> the site with</font> changes in<font color="#E5E5E5"> elevation and even then</font> creating new ones can raise environmental concerns so the search for

solutions for grid energy storage is still on just outside<font color="#E5E5E5"> San Francisco in</font> the<font color="#CCCCCC"> Bay</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> Area one company is giving it</font> their own in amber<font color="#CCCCCC"> kinetics they sell an</font> energy storage<font color="#CCCCCC"> system built around</font> massive spinning discs called flywheels

the principle<font color="#E5E5E5"> is simple electricity</font> powers a motor<font color="#CCCCCC"> that spins up the heavy</font> flywheel now<font color="#E5E5E5"> energy is stored in the</font> flywheels momentum to convert that back <font color="#E5E5E5">into electricity the flywheel engages a</font> generator its momentum turning the

generators shaft and the flywheel slows the generator creates electricity needing both weight and strength amber kinetics makes their flywheel out of <font color="#E5E5E5">Steel how much the knees</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> baby's way this</font> is<font color="#E5E5E5"> about a five thousand town part</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> now</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> I</font>

now passes are going to be spinning there's some good number of thousands of RPM in its<font color="#E5E5E5"> finished unit the flywheel</font> sits inside a welded steel chamber that <font color="#E5E5E5">tightly sealed shut so it can spin in a</font> near vacuum to reduce friction with the

air they also reduce friction using a giant magnet mounted above the flywheel which listed upward removing most of its weight so it rests only lightly on its support<font color="#CCCCCC"> bearings and so the friction in</font> <font color="#CCCCCC">the mechanical bearing is partly</font>

determined by how much<font color="#E5E5E5"> force is to bear</font> and supporting until we make<font color="#E5E5E5"> the force</font> extremely light all<font color="#E5E5E5"> of this adds up to</font> breaking new ground flywheels have been used<font color="#E5E5E5"> on the grid</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> before but mostly to</font> store energy<font color="#E5E5E5"> only four seconds or</font>

minutes amber kinetics flywheels can store energy for up to four hours for example capturing the<font color="#CCCCCC"> energy generated</font> by<font color="#CCCCCC"> a solar array during the day for use</font> in the evening a process called time shift

set shows me what a nearly complete flywheel unit looks like there's a flywheel in here that you made but is it <font color="#E5E5E5">spinning right now know if it rough now</font> okay if it were spinning would I hear it you would not be<font color="#CCCCCC"> able to hear</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> it because</font>

the heart is balanced to a very high degree and the residual vibration is <font color="#CCCCCC">minuscule as a grid storage solution</font> flywheels to kind of electromechanical battery have an advantage<font color="#E5E5E5"> over chemical</font> batteries they don't wear out for

decades the<font color="#CCCCCC"> same can't be said for</font> <font color="#E5E5E5">lithium ion batteries but there are a</font> lot of those getting put to work on the grid as well this is had to beat California near the Mojave Desert homes some of the oldest and largest wind

farms in the country<font color="#CCCCCC"> but the wind blows</font> strongest at night on demand<font color="#E5E5E5"> for</font> electricity is that it's the lowest in 2014 Southern California Edison installed a fifty-million-dollar energy storage system that uses<font color="#E5E5E5"> lithium ion</font>

batteries what we want to<font color="#E5E5E5"> do is</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> be able</font> <font color="#E5E5E5">to use this to smooth out firm up the</font> output ago so it's much more<font color="#E5E5E5"> predictable</font> for<font color="#E5E5E5"> an example when the wind blows</font> during the nighttime capture that energy and then use it during the daytime when

the<font color="#CCCCCC"> demand is high</font> lithium-ion batteries have made inroads into<font color="#CCCCCC"> grade</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> storage but they're still</font> expensive and part<font color="#E5E5E5"> of the premium paid</font> is for their<font color="#E5E5E5"> lightweight which matters</font> for electric<font color="#E5E5E5"> cars and portable</font>

electronics but<font color="#E5E5E5"> maybe not for the grid</font> here in the Pittsburgh area battery <font color="#E5E5E5">scientist J Whittaker has taken a</font> different approach he's sacrificed lithium-ion lightweight<font color="#CCCCCC"> court ability to</font> create a battery<font color="#CCCCCC"> that's cheaper and</font>

safer it's nicknamed the<font color="#CCCCCC"> salt water</font> battery we're going<font color="#E5E5E5"> to retrace his steps</font> starting at square one the periodic table <font color="#CCCCCC">alright so these are the elements</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> that</font> make up our world which elements can you

<font color="#CCCCCC">use to make a battery really almost</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> any</font> <font color="#E5E5E5">of them if they have any reaction</font> potential at all you can make electrodes out of them and<font color="#E5E5E5"> they will store energy</font> that's not<font color="#E5E5E5"> that hard but that's not</font> <font color="#E5E5E5">really the question you want to ask</font>

right you want<font color="#E5E5E5"> to ask which of these</font> <font color="#CCCCCC">elements can we use to really scale</font> large like really big energy storage to solve the world's problems right and to answer that question<font color="#E5E5E5"> we really get rid</font> of most of this like this this is gone

in fact we slide this out<font color="#E5E5E5"> and</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> then we</font> start thinking<font color="#CCCCCC"> about what's called</font> crustal abundance crustal abundance crustal abundant crustal abundant is an estimate of the availability<font color="#CCCCCC"> of an</font> element in the<font color="#E5E5E5"> Earth's outer layer it's</font>

trust the higher<font color="#CCCCCC"> the percentage the more</font> available it is which translates into cheaper and probably better for the environment since its more common so if you can pick from crustal we abundant materials or elements you're probably

going to<font color="#E5E5E5"> have the best</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> shot at having a</font> <font color="#CCCCCC">low cost environmentally safe battery I</font> I'm always in favor of crustal the abundance so silicon these will<font color="#CCCCCC"> not</font> surprise you get carbon hydrogen yeah these<font color="#E5E5E5"> are</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> in no particular order but</font>

you'll recognize all of them they're very common materials they make up<font color="#CCCCCC"> every</font> <font color="#CCCCCC">day like oxygen and a couple</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> really</font> <font color="#E5E5E5">important ones you've got</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> a sodium which</font> is obviously everywhere in the ocean you've got potassium which is a heavy

biological factor and lithium which you might not think is<font color="#CCCCCC"> Kressley abundant</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> but</font> actually is and these were the ones that <font color="#CCCCCC">I started</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> looking at 2007 when I was</font> trying<font color="#CCCCCC"> to figure out what elements I</font> would use<font color="#E5E5E5"> to put</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> together in any which</font>

way to create<font color="#CCCCCC"> something that was going</font> to be functional out of this initial collection of elements<font color="#E5E5E5"> J created a</font> battery that had a sodium manganese oxide positive electrode and a carbon negative electrode

when the battery was charged sodium ions left the positive electrode to gather at the negative carbon electrode when discharged it would return to<font color="#E5E5E5"> the</font> <font color="#CCCCCC">positive electrode with each charged and</font> discharged they shuttled back and forth

<font color="#E5E5E5">the electrolyte sodium sulfate salt</font> dissolved in water gave the battery its nickname the<font color="#E5E5E5"> saltwater battery from</font> there<font color="#CCCCCC"> J began tweaking his recipe the</font> end result was a battery far less energy dense than lithium ion but non-flammable

non-toxic and cheaper so this is<font color="#E5E5E5"> a</font> barrel of our active material this <font color="#E5E5E5">happens</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> to</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> be our cathode material</font> manganese oxide based system and its really simple it basically looks like dark sand or dark dirt listen Jay I've

been to a few battery of factories in my pie sherry I'm sure you have and I've never been allowed to<font color="#E5E5E5"> walk up to a</font> barrel yes in a non humidity-controlled room are you just really<font color="#E5E5E5"> crude yours and</font> <font color="#CCCCCC">Noah the key difference between this</font>

battery and probably all the others you visited is that we use water as an electrolyte water changes everything in battery on the downside<font color="#CCCCCC"> it limits the</font> voltage<font color="#CCCCCC"> to high and the water split into</font> hydrogen and oxygen<font color="#E5E5E5"> gas but it also</font>

<font color="#E5E5E5">means you don't need the expensive low</font> humidity dry rooms required to make <font color="#E5E5E5">lithium ion batteries</font> and of course water is non-flammable safer in fact these salts that<font color="#CCCCCC"> we used</font> as electrolyte salts are flame

inhibitors is this toxic person does<font color="#CCCCCC"> not</font> talk to get all this half of game biologically consumable yeah<font color="#E5E5E5"> I wouldn't</font> <font color="#E5E5E5">recommend it's going to taste a little</font> salty to you a<font color="#E5E5E5"> little weird but yeah</font> there you go I'm concise yeah it's

<font color="#E5E5E5">totally fine it's not even salty no it's</font> just like<font color="#CCCCCC"> tan yeah in my basically</font> Spanish it's actually a little<font color="#E5E5E5"> better</font> than stance there's a frequent stand either these days a qui on energy is churning out batteries in the former

Sony Trinitron factory outside of Hitler's here Jay's emphasis on safe ingredients saves a lot of money<font color="#E5E5E5"> in</font> manufacturing the electrode material <font color="#E5E5E5">eyeteeth tested is pressed into cookie</font> <font color="#E5E5E5">like wafers which in turn get assembled</font>

by these pick-and-place machines from the<font color="#E5E5E5"> food industry used in packaging all</font> without the plate humidity and dust controls found in lithium-ion battery factories [Music]

already<font color="#E5E5E5"> saltwater batteries are part of</font> hundreds of solar installations around the world ranging from utility projects to individual homes but Jay sees himself at<font color="#E5E5E5"> the beginning of a massive</font> undertaking to bring energy storage to

the<font color="#E5E5E5"> grid this is not a small</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> scale</font> project like to get storage<font color="#E5E5E5"> to be</font> relevant in the world you have to<font color="#CCCCCC"> make</font> huge amounts of it and this is<font color="#E5E5E5"> just a</font> drop in the bucket we're<font color="#E5E5E5"> just getting</font> <font color="#CCCCCC">started on that everyone agrees if we</font>

want<font color="#E5E5E5"> energy storage to integrate</font> renewables into the grid we're woefully short on quantity in 2010<font color="#E5E5E5"> Bill Gates</font> noted that all the batteries on earth could store less than 10 minutes of<font color="#E5E5E5"> the</font> world's electricity production to fill

the<font color="#CCCCCC"> gap will need systems that can scale</font> up easily Levi Thompson at<font color="#E5E5E5"> the</font> University<font color="#E5E5E5"> of Michigan introduces me to</font> one a rechargeable battery unlike any other the flow battery he explains that <font color="#E5E5E5">a typical battery is a closed system</font>

artist and this is all sealed so everything<font color="#CCCCCC"> that you need is in there</font> it's like<font color="#CCCCCC"> a cake you put everything in</font> there you get everything<font color="#E5E5E5"> you want every</font> battery kind<font color="#E5E5E5"> of looks like this every</font> battery but a flow battery says come<font color="#CCCCCC"> to</font>

<font color="#E5E5E5">me</font> instead<font color="#CCCCCC"> of a closed system a flow</font> battery has external tanks containing two chemicals they're pumped past each other through a chamber because of a special thin membrane they can't<font color="#CCCCCC"> mix but</font>

in close proximity they do<font color="#E5E5E5"> reacts</font> generating electricity the<font color="#E5E5E5"> capacity of a</font> flow battery depends on the size<font color="#E5E5E5"> of the</font> external tanks that hold the chemicals bigger tanks in your battery more<font color="#E5E5E5"> energy</font> flow systems are for large-scale

applications much more efficient much more cost effective than sealed systems it's a much better<font color="#E5E5E5"> solution to</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> the</font> problem<font color="#E5E5E5"> slow batteries will surely play</font> a role<font color="#CCCCCC"> in the</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> grid this is what they</font> <font color="#CCCCCC">have always been</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> designed for and</font>

thought<font color="#CCCCCC"> of as the grid battery some flow</font> batteries are already in operation like this one at Fort Devens a u.s. army installation in<font color="#E5E5E5"> Massachusetts the</font> battery helps integrate solar generation reduces peak demand and improve our

<font color="#E5E5E5">quality and research continues like the</font> work of these<font color="#E5E5E5"> two members of</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> Levi's team</font> it's early days but with more development flow batteries might just turn out to be the<font color="#E5E5E5"> answer for grid</font> storage this is something that's shown

the work<font color="#E5E5E5"> and people are actually using</font> it but that's not<font color="#CCCCCC"> the mind blower so</font> much as where it could be<font color="#E5E5E5"> in 40 years</font> absolutely flow batteries are perhaps the newest exciting<font color="#CCCCCC"> entry</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> but i would expect over</font>

the next decade there's going to be a whole series of these new exciting entrance into the field so in the<font color="#E5E5E5"> end we</font> still don't know if<font color="#E5E5E5"> the grid super</font> <font color="#E5E5E5">battery will be one technology or a mix</font> of Pumped hydro chemical batteries

flywheels flow batteries and others but if<font color="#E5E5E5"> we really want to integrate</font> renewables into the grid and<font color="#CCCCCC"> trade our</font> carbons viewing vehicles for greener ones and good on the massive scale required to fight climate change one

thing's for sure energy storage and lots of it will<font color="#E5E5E5"> be in our future and so will</font> the ongoing search for the superbattery [Music]



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