English Subtitles for Network Thinking: Mark Turrell at TEDxBerlin



Subtitles / Closed Captions - English

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<font color="#E5E5E5">iron Stein would teach undergraduate</font> physics at Princeton University his second year students would get a shock when they're in the examination all because in front of<font color="#E5E5E5"> them will be last</font> year's examination questions finally one

brave student would put the hand ups excuse me professor Einstein you've made a<font color="#CCCCCC"> mistake you seem to have given us last</font> year's questions Einstein would just smile and<font color="#CCCCCC"> say well whilst it's true that</font> I've given<font color="#CCCCCC"> you last year's questions</font>

this<font color="#E5E5E5"> year the answers are all different</font> I'm going<font color="#E5E5E5"> to be sharing with</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> you some</font> insights around<font color="#E5E5E5"> network thinking about</font> how what we think about networks there might be a lot more to<font color="#CCCCCC"> it than we can</font> see when we start<font color="#CCCCCC"> thinking of networks</font>

there's a very<font color="#E5E5E5"> superficial understanding</font> that we have I'm<font color="#E5E5E5"> sure as soon as I say</font> networks you think of social media <font color="#E5E5E5">Facebook Twitter Instagram these social</font> networks have now taken up our thinking around networks themselves we also<font color="#E5E5E5"> have</font>

the<font color="#CCCCCC"> notion of social graph for those of</font> <font color="#CCCCCC">you that go into the academics of</font> networks we look at the distance between different people within networks this is interesting is it useful we will find out but<font color="#CCCCCC"> this is one way right now</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> that</font>

we begin<font color="#E5E5E5"> to treat the subject of</font> networks but there are<font color="#CCCCCC"> many different</font> types<font color="#E5E5E5"> of networks that have nothing to</font> do<font color="#CCCCCC"> with the social</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> networking that</font> sometimes we technologists believe the world is all about there are networks of

trade unions there are networks of political parties there are networks of <font color="#CCCCCC">association there are networks of</font> affiliation this is the network of anonymous there's the network of occupying there are many many many many

<font color="#CCCCCC">different types of networks and people</font> like connecting together in networks in the same way though this use of networks can also be<font color="#CCCCCC"> used for contagion for bio</font> hazards there's a great Hollywood movie that pretty much looks at how the a

small piece of<font color="#E5E5E5"> banana dropped into a pig</font> plant can actually start creating disease and spreading<font color="#E5E5E5"> that and</font> propagating that through the world these networks can operate down for good and they can also do some very

scary things for us this concept of networks and then there<font color="#E5E5E5"> is the most</font> <font color="#E5E5E5">standard thing that we</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> have when you go</font> to conferences and events<font color="#E5E5E5"> like this of</font> networking where we meet people sometimes we don't necessarily meet the

right person you want<font color="#E5E5E5"> to connect to</font> their standing over there somewhere but right<font color="#CCCCCC"> now this networking thing is</font> something that we all intuitively do well I began to have some thoughts about this I began to think maybe there's a

lot<font color="#E5E5E5"> more to this networking thing we all</font> intuitively know and understand some more depth that we can really<font color="#E5E5E5"> get into</font> that can change things around and my revelation was it<font color="#E5E5E5"> this place I don't</font> know if anybody know this how many<font color="#CCCCCC"> of</font>

you ever been<font color="#E5E5E5"> like clubbing in Hong Kong</font> so this is<font color="#CCCCCC"> dragonite we're on</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> Wednesday</font> nights I found out models go free well in fact that the way that<font color="#E5E5E5"> I do my</font> thinking the way that I get<font color="#E5E5E5"> my most sort</font> of Zen moments of thought is actually by

going out to night clubs as sort of a sort of party places and sitting quietly by myself observing and this one particular night in 2008 I was<font color="#CCCCCC"> in sort</font> <font color="#E5E5E5">of told to go to</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> dragonite I had my VIP</font> table with my bottle<font color="#E5E5E5"> of champagne and a</font>

corner and I looked around I that my club and<font color="#E5E5E5"> I had my beautiful mind moment</font> I don't know if yeah man if you know the Russell Crowe movie or another option would be the oceans 12 13 movie when you <font color="#E5E5E5">can see numbers above people's heads in</font>

the Beautiful Mind movie a great scientist then is trying to work out what is going on when he sees everybody interacting he and John Nash<font color="#E5E5E5"> the</font> mathematician invented game theory well I spent the time looking at network

theory i was looking<font color="#CCCCCC"> at clusters of</font> people that attracted everybody else to them that obviously was<font color="#CCCCCC"> the table full</font> of models there<font color="#E5E5E5"> was the people</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> that were</font> shuttling around table table table table the waitstaff and then there<font color="#E5E5E5"> was one</font>

<font color="#E5E5E5">person that seemed to be responsible for</font> creating a<font color="#E5E5E5"> heart piece a pulse to the</font> entire network that was the DJ I<font color="#CCCCCC"> spent a</font> lot of time thinking about networks as it began to<font color="#CCCCCC"> do that and I was looking</font> what our notion of networks were I

realized<font color="#E5E5E5"> that</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> we were often looking at</font> it upside down and fountain we're looking at networks we were<font color="#CCCCCC"> actually</font> looking out a difference<font color="#CCCCCC"> between</font> infrastructure mapping out the modes mapping out the streets but<font color="#CCCCCC"> we were</font>

ignoring<font color="#E5E5E5"> sometimes the flows the</font> interactions the connectivity that lives within that<font color="#E5E5E5"> network and so what I'll be</font> <font color="#E5E5E5">sharing with you with</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> network thinking</font> <font color="#CCCCCC">as</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> some thoughts around looking at the</font> networkers infrastructure looking at the

networkers flows and as you move to the end I'll give you something<font color="#CCCCCC"> that is very</font> important for all of us which is how do <font color="#CCCCCC">you make use of this network that we</font> have so if you look of a network pretty much is made up of nodes and links this

is an example<font color="#CCCCCC"> of like street corners and</font> streets and in fact one of these notions that we have within that works is that there are<font color="#CCCCCC"> these nodes these little</font> points but it then turns out that there are all kinds of<font color="#CCCCCC"> different nodes and</font>

these nodes play all kinds of different <font color="#CCCCCC">roles for example some people play the</font> role of amplifier if you give<font color="#CCCCCC"> them a</font> <font color="#E5E5E5">message they tweet it out and some of</font> you may be here or listening or looking right<font color="#CCCCCC"> now and saying this is really</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> cool</font>

I'll share this and that message<font color="#E5E5E5"> can</font> then be amplified based on who you are <font color="#E5E5E5">as we go into this we then find that</font> <font color="#E5E5E5">there</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> are certain nodes called repeaters</font> if you give this message<font color="#CCCCCC"> to a node they</font> will repeat it that's<font color="#E5E5E5"> almost their job</font>

and we've all got friends like this what I'm<font color="#E5E5E5"> trying to do by the way to get into</font> <font color="#E5E5E5">your heads is to begin to think that</font> these are actual structural pieces in the network<font color="#CCCCCC"> that</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> can be used whether</font> you're in civil society or in business

or even in<font color="#E5E5E5"> your personal professional</font> careers these repeaters job is to move <font color="#CCCCCC">the network move messages through</font> networks in the<font color="#E5E5E5"> same way then poor kitty</font> there are also types of nodes<font color="#E5E5E5"> in</font> networks which are called deadliness

where if you give<font color="#CCCCCC"> them a</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> message they</font> will kill it for you some of you may work with<font color="#CCCCCC"> people like this so right now</font> these are also network structures now by the way within a network very often <font color="#E5E5E5">people let's call the people can play</font>

different<font color="#CCCCCC"> roles at different times</font> sometimes<font color="#CCCCCC"> you may be a dead in them</font> sometimes you may be a repeater sometimes maybe an amplifier just gives you different ways of<font color="#CCCCCC"> looking at these nodes</font>

there are signalers now one of the strange facts that most people<font color="#CCCCCC"> don't</font> know<font color="#E5E5E5"> about me is that I created and set</font> up a fashion photography studio in Los Angeles I did it<font color="#E5E5E5"> for a variety of</font> wonderful reasons one of them was to

<font color="#CCCCCC">actually test out a lot of my network</font> theory as I was there and<font color="#E5E5E5"> by the way I</font> knew<font color="#E5E5E5"> nothing about photography I knew</font> nothing about fashion and I knew nothing about Los Angeles I set one up anyway um when I was there I realized that<font color="#E5E5E5"> there</font>

were certain people<font color="#CCCCCC"> that would know the</font> future guaranteed within a certain domain if you're trying to<font color="#E5E5E5"> work out</font> who's going<font color="#E5E5E5"> to be 55 foot tall on a</font> billboard these are the<font color="#E5E5E5"> Booker's at the</font> modeling agencies because they know

whose picture is going<font color="#E5E5E5"> to be taken and</font> in four months time they<font color="#E5E5E5"> will be on the</font> <font color="#E5E5E5">front cover of a</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> newspaper or</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> on a</font> billboard I then realized that<font color="#E5E5E5"> within a</font> network there were certain nodes in a network that could tell the future this

was done for example in world war one we're spies would settle local people would sit<font color="#E5E5E5"> in Belgian railway stations</font> counting<font color="#E5E5E5"> the train cars going through</font> because then you could know within two or three<font color="#CCCCCC"> days</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> what reinforcements were</font>

being sent to the front signalers within a network again people haven't looked at this before young nodes another thing <font color="#CCCCCC">I've</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> noticed is that kids seem to behave</font> differently from adults<font color="#E5E5E5"> and sometimes</font> older people behave differently from

current adults weird it turns out that most people when<font color="#CCCCCC"> they think about</font> networks assume that everybody is the same and yet new nodes in a network just like new human beings joining our human society behave differently from let's

say adult nodes right now the reason why we have to tell children to not for an out<font color="#CCCCCC"> int in the middle of the street is</font> that they haven't quite figured it out yet<font color="#E5E5E5"> and if we let those nodes just go</font> off and<font color="#CCCCCC"> do</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> whatever they wanted they'd</font>

<font color="#E5E5E5">pretty soon just get killed all the time</font> this is<font color="#E5E5E5"> very important because as we</font> begin to<font color="#E5E5E5"> think of our networks we need</font> to think that newer people in networks behave differently from those that<font color="#E5E5E5"> have</font> been<font color="#E5E5E5"> there</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> for a while again this</font>

provides new insights or more insights link dynamics when we<font color="#E5E5E5"> think about this</font> network as having these points there's also these ways of joining these network and it turns out there are many different types<font color="#E5E5E5"> of links there are</font>

one-way links right now and it's I'm pleased<font color="#CCCCCC"> that I can see some people</font> smiling and nodding but right now normally there<font color="#CCCCCC"> is a way of pretty</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> much</font> one person talks and then in a dynamic conversation it's a two-way but

sometimes it has to be necessarily a one-way communication and links can be active or they can<font color="#CCCCCC"> be passive they can</font> suddenly become activated because of a certain thing has happened or they may be dead for almost all of the time<font color="#CCCCCC"> and</font>

suddenly<font color="#E5E5E5"> get created this again gives us</font> new perspectives and thinking about networks and then ultimately<font color="#E5E5E5"> is will</font> look at later how we can<font color="#E5E5E5"> make use of</font> these network dynamics and then<font color="#E5E5E5"> just the</font> <font color="#E5E5E5">final thought is</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> network conditions we</font>

may somehow think that a network is always the same<font color="#E5E5E5"> and yet the</font> environmental conditions can fundamentally change the functioning of a network for example and I've lived quite a long time<font color="#E5E5E5"> in London if London</font>

has a centimeter or two of snow London <font color="#CCCCCC">kind of stops working right now this</font> means then that<font color="#E5E5E5"> that underlying network</font> connection of snow can fundamentally change a transport network well this can be the same<font color="#E5E5E5"> for other types of networks</font>

as well and these<font color="#E5E5E5"> are just extra things</font> to start<font color="#E5E5E5"> thinking about as</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> we begin to</font> <font color="#CCCCCC">develop</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> this concert about about network</font> thinking but now we've thought about the network infrastructure let's go into <font color="#E5E5E5">some of the flows that exist within a</font>

network because that's actually<font color="#CCCCCC"> almost</font> more important than<font color="#CCCCCC"> just knowing the</font> basic structure because now we're looking at how do messages get spread with networks how do you persuade networks to go do stuff to help you<font color="#CCCCCC"> out</font>

this is a children's game called pass the parcel where you pretty much would <font color="#E5E5E5">have a circle and you have a parcel</font> wrapped in little covers of paper and you pass it<font color="#E5E5E5"> one two three this is an</font> <font color="#E5E5E5">example of passing messages for those of</font>

<font color="#CCCCCC">you who in organizations that want to</font> pass messages there's a good advice when you start<font color="#CCCCCC"> looking at network thinking</font> and messages and messages<font color="#CCCCCC"> one should</font> first we'll start<font color="#E5E5E5"> thinking of your</font> message is really being a package of

things your package contains three components it contains a message it contains a call to<font color="#CCCCCC"> action please do</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> this</font> thing and then if you're<font color="#CCCCCC"> going</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> to actually be</font> smart but<font color="#E5E5E5"> then again we all should</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> be</font>

smart it contains a viral spread please pass this on if you begin<font color="#CCCCCC"> to do</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> this you</font> begin to<font color="#E5E5E5"> have much more effective</font> communications and later on we'll<font color="#E5E5E5"> get</font> into things<font color="#CCCCCC"> that'll</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> make even those</font> communications more effective again we

also<font color="#E5E5E5"> need to</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> think about the spread</font> ability of those<font color="#CCCCCC"> messages for example if</font> your message was kill kittens<font color="#CCCCCC"> if your</font> message was kill kittens how many of<font color="#E5E5E5"> you</font> would spread that message please say nobody and yet if the<font color="#E5E5E5"> only other hands</font>

the message was would you like<font color="#E5E5E5"> that do</font> would you or do you know somebody would like to adopt<font color="#E5E5E5"> a kitten hopefully many of</font> you would do that right now certain messages are much more spreadable than others and this again<font color="#E5E5E5"> is a very</font>

important thing when you're looking at crafting your message crafting<font color="#CCCCCC"> you're</font> <font color="#CCCCCC">asked and then there's the whole</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> notion</font> of spreading means who knows who this is I'm sure that other dancers will do it better than<font color="#E5E5E5"> me</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> right now this is a great</font>

example so a meme is when there is an <font color="#CCCCCC">original idea but it gets morphed it</font> gets changed it gets shaped we all may know Gangnam style but we may also know the<font color="#CCCCCC"> eatin version or the US Olympic</font> <font color="#CCCCCC">Steam version</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> and you'll probably never</font>

know my version 1 comment though that is actually very important for<font color="#E5E5E5"> those people</font> <font color="#E5E5E5">doing marketing is that this whole</font> notion of virality is quite often entirely pointless because actually if you're looking to spread action quite

often you can make some media content be viral but that doesn't<font color="#CCCCCC"> need</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> to</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> say that</font> anybody actually does anything<font color="#E5E5E5"> about</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> it</font> and one of<font color="#E5E5E5"> the things</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> that I'm looking</font> <font color="#E5E5E5">at right now is how often do you</font> actually get actual substantive change

or behavior change rather than just spending<font color="#CCCCCC"> 3 minutes watching a YouTube</font> clip but now<font color="#CCCCCC"> let's go deeper we don't</font> <font color="#CCCCCC">have very</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> much time so let's do the deep</font> things really quickly<font color="#E5E5E5"> so no time</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> for</font> questions and this is why we begin to

combine together different scientific disciplines to make this notion of network science be a lot more bigger and richer than what we currently think it is and then we're looking complex fields networks fortunately this is really

<font color="#E5E5E5">simple complex systems</font> complex systems can simply be defined as two or more<font color="#E5E5E5"> let's</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> call the people with</font> memories so we knew what we did a second ago that are<font color="#CCCCCC"> interacting we're picking</font> and giving off signals and as soon as

that happens the world is complex and colonies traffic colonies snow patterns what's very interesting is that when<font color="#E5E5E5"> the</font> world of networks has never really <font color="#E5E5E5">connected together with the world of</font> complex systems and yet very often most

networks are complex and most complex systems have network dynamics this begins<font color="#E5E5E5"> to give us a huge range of</font> insights around complex systems that we can't go into now that allows us<font color="#CCCCCC"> to</font> broaden out our concepts and theories

around networks multi-dimensional networks right now we all believe when you look at networks that we live in<font color="#CCCCCC"> a</font> superficial<font color="#E5E5E5"> plane like it's a one</font> dimensional plane and yet right now if <font color="#CCCCCC">we look at</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> the people here are the</font>

people watching<font color="#CCCCCC"> this right now we all</font> know that<font color="#E5E5E5"> we personally exist in</font> multiple networks I for example<font color="#E5E5E5"> I'm a</font> young global leader at<font color="#CCCCCC"> the World</font> Economic Forum I used to work at Intel i went to Cass Business School I'm a

professor at<font color="#E5E5E5"> whole business school right</font> <font color="#CCCCCC">now I belong in several networks so if</font> anybody wants to communicate to me I have<font color="#CCCCCC"> the potential to communicate to all</font> of those networks almost instantaneously and then field networks remember that

night<font color="#E5E5E5"> club DJ that I mentioned well now</font> the ability for that DJ within<font color="#E5E5E5"> a</font> <font color="#CCCCCC">nightclub to create a pulse and a rhythm</font> within the network allows you to do some very very interesting things<font color="#E5E5E5"> about</font> influencing all of the nodes in the

network at the same time using almost <font color="#E5E5E5">like magnetic</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> fields now to make sure</font> <font color="#E5E5E5">that everybody gets some value out of</font> this I'm<font color="#E5E5E5"> sure that quite a lot of you</font> will have come in here with an end goal and in fact what's interesting if you

look at networks is that as soon as you have an end goal everything changes so some of you may have<font color="#E5E5E5"> an end goal here</font> that you want a new job<font color="#E5E5E5"> create a new</font> company who knows go out on a date as <font color="#E5E5E5">soon as you have that end goal in your</font>

mind everything changes even<font color="#CCCCCC"> if it is</font> <font color="#E5E5E5">exactly the network structure now my</font> insight for this was visiting some some guys that were<font color="#E5E5E5"> doing MRI scanners and it</font> wasn't looking<font color="#CCCCCC"> the fact that this is a</font> big

giant magnet and as soon as there is an <font color="#CCCCCC">energy source applied to that magnet</font> because<font color="#CCCCCC"> we have iron in our blood then</font> your<font color="#CCCCCC"> owns</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> in our blood</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> spitting and were</font> able to see what's happening within<font color="#E5E5E5"> the</font> brain because after<font color="#CCCCCC"> all our brain is a</font>

network it's made of neurons sign apses and if you<font color="#E5E5E5"> remember that sort of a</font> network condition to the<font color="#E5E5E5"> snow the myelin</font> is the<font color="#E5E5E5"> gloop that lives in between</font> what's now fascinating with an MRI machine is<font color="#CCCCCC"> that if you're doing a scan</font>

apply the energy pulse and all of a sudden things become<font color="#E5E5E5"> clear in the brain</font> if I were to<font color="#CCCCCC"> ask you now think of</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> the</font> celebrity most famous celebrity that<font color="#E5E5E5"> you</font> <font color="#CCCCCC">personally know in your</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> heads you will</font> have thought domain is at football is it

politics do I know them personally it is it local in your brain you'll begin ding ding ding ding ding what your brain is <font color="#E5E5E5">doing is you're</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> doing a focusing</font> activity when even though you have this vast number of neurons you have 17

billion neurons and your head for cognitive processing all of a sudden a relatively small number will become useful because<font color="#E5E5E5"> you have been given an</font> end goal and in the<font color="#CCCCCC"> end goal what</font> happens then<font color="#CCCCCC"> is that all of a sudden the</font>

things that are<font color="#E5E5E5"> in the domain that</font> you're<font color="#CCCCCC"> looking for become much more</font> important and effectively your network of your brain instantly reconfigures and one side instantly reconfigures that allows you to solve<font color="#E5E5E5"> problems now ready</font>

by just giving you the brain example you can quite quickly see how the human brain does this as a network what I've always found fascinating then is<font color="#E5E5E5"> that if</font> we<font color="#E5E5E5"> begin to do apply this to the social</font> media<font color="#E5E5E5"> networks we have the communities</font>

of<font color="#E5E5E5"> customers that you've built up the</font> the sort of<font color="#E5E5E5"> the human networks that were</font> in what it does is allows you to do something<font color="#CCCCCC"> that I think is very very</font> important it gives us a new way of thinking about<font color="#E5E5E5"> something</font><font color="#CCCCCC"> that we know</font>

intuitively that we see<font color="#CCCCCC"> every day that</font> we can see right now it gives<font color="#E5E5E5"> us a new</font> set of tools to then apply it to solving end goals to solving problems in a way that we weren't ever possible beforehand with again a very very relatively simple

set of rules to start achieving some pretty amazing things and with<font color="#CCCCCC"> that I'd like to</font><font color="#E5E5E5"> say thank you</font> very much thank<font color="#E5E5E5"> you</font>



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