English Subtitles for Life's cosmic origins: Carolyn Collins Petersen at TEDxFoCo



Subtitles / Closed Captions - English

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just different be hi there everybody I really can't see you but I know you're out there yes I am Carolyn Collins Peterson will bring up my opening slide for you I'm yes I did interview numbers Star Trek captains and I be happy to talk to them talk to you about them after my talk winik invited me to %um

come in talk today and he gave me the theme life worth living I had to think about that one for a while because had originally intended to talk about astronomy and I decided that I'd spend my few minutes with you talking in focusing on the word life home so now we're going to talk about life and discuss the cosmic origins wife

so I want to start beginning with the question how did life get started it's an interesting question we know I get started on this planet because here we are and astronomers are busy looking for other worlds where life is getting started and we don't know that it's gotten started somewhere else but

nasa's Kepler mission is out there looking for world is looking for the world in a very tiny area of space and so far it's found about 20 more than 2700 XO planets exoplanets world around other stars and so far people when they hear that one minute they announce new discovery new exoplanets the we asked the question

are the earthquake we ask that question because we just sort of seem to assume that earthquake means it'll have conditions to form life and that those are the only places like conform but that may not be true I mean it could be a Jupiter like real that there were no but you better big massive planet the wife

but there could be a Jupiter like world out there that does have life we just don't know so knowing that there are the world's after those twenty seven hundred-plus was world is very exciting but it doesn't really answer the question about where life came from so life think about it as a gift from the cosmos

the cosmos supplies the raw materials for life and it does this using stars now astronomy and astrophysics tell us how stars live how they born how they work how they die but that's only part of the story of life the rest to the story of life comes from a science called astrobiology in that combines astronomy biology chemistry biochemistry

I'm planetary science life sciences and it tries to figure out what conditions are necessary for life and whether or not there are other worlds with life so think about astrobiology is a science that tries to determine where those worlds are and how they shape the wife that arises on them well the story of life

really begins with the Big Bang and these are they were I'm sorry I missed a slight these are the world's I wanted to show you about earth in many the other worlds the story of life really begins with the Big Bang and we don't have a good picture The Big Bang we kind of know when it is so I'm just gonna show you darkness because anything i show you would look like an explosion that's not really what

it was but the Big Bang was the founding event in the universe it was the beginning of space in time interestingly the Big Bang created all the hydrogen in the universe hydrogen is the most elemental element that we have it also created some helium and some hydrogen

I'm sorry lithium hydrogens very important it's part of water weenie Water for Life it also binds very easily with other elements are that make the molecules that that life needs to exist those elements are things like carbon nitrogen oxygen so we're all those other elements come from a farm hydrogen was made in

the Big Bang well they come from stars here's how stars form other elements diffuse hydrogen in their core in that creates helium diffusion process actually gives of human life which is how star signs how the Sun works when stars run out of hydrogen all the hydrogen fueling their course

they begin diffuse helium and then makes carbon another element that we need now the fusion process continues in some stars making more in heavier elements all the way up to iron actually but eventually all-stars run out of fuel in their cores in when and thats in at that point the fusion stops and the stars die now stars nine different ways actually

I'm depending on their masks so I really massive star explode as a supernova in s Katter's all of the elements it has been cooking up inside its core out to space now some like stars other stars like the SUN I this will have to become red giants in a lose their outer atmospheres and they become what we call

a planetary nebulae in as they do this all the material that they made in their cores is also scattered out to space now some of this material ends up floating out in space and it becomes raw material for new generations of stars and planets now these are nebulae these are very important part in the history of life think of them is interstellar chemical factories

on their field with elements are created in stars but they also have water molecules they have been some carbon they have sand grains are ice chunks rock and they're very busy places they move in a churn is a flow through space there elements mixed together they have magnetic fields threaded through them

I'm they get heated and stirred when new stars form inside them and occasionally I'll have a supernova that explodes near Wendy's Nobili in that tremendous explosions and Shockwave through the cloud it also infuses the cloud with new elements the record up in the supernova inside the blue hour so what's important for life are the chemical reactions that take place

in their daily they create organic makeup molecules especially amino acids now what's really amazing is today we're finding see arm we're finding these prebiotics in many many now billion interstellar space in these clouds of gas and dust the interstellar space and the interesting part also is how we find them we use radio telescopes

this is a the Green Bank telescope I'm sorry this is the Green Bank telescope okay where's the laser ok you on their mind that thing down there in the corner is the Green Bank telescope in Virginia am and a group of astronomers use this %uh telescope to focus in on nebula not too far from our planet

in the found a whole slew of prebiotic molecules in the way they did that is they the since the radio emissions from it their little emissions that come out from these in with the fam down and we're all these molecules in particular the wind down at the bottom called cyanamid an amine now that's really a precursor to something called add mean

which is a a very important component our DNA they also found the amino acid aloni now all this material was out there floating around in space in its available to see the planets with materials that are necessary for life the nebula where our solar system are formed obviously had access to all this

material because here we are astronomers are studying asteroids and comets and I media center left over from the formation of our solar system and they're sure enough there finding are traces organic materials and prebiotics in those

objects so here's one early solar system look like we had the sign in the center its performing very young sign it's surrounded by rotating cloud of gas and dust it has the seeds of planets forming inside it let's get forward to the formation of our own earth and this is what early

Earth look like as it was for me it was started out small in it was formed as planet estamos crashed into it now these planet estamos in the small rock singer in in the picture here they're crashing into it and they're made out and get some carbon them in Iraq

so carbon and silicon they have prebiotic materials laced through them they have deposits in water in they helped build up the planet over hundreds of thousands of years now there were also comets crashing onto the surface in early planet in the most certainly bright I supplies water in prebiotics now eventually the youngers cool sorry I meant to sing in is it did the oceans

and an early atmosphere formed and so that set the stage for the formation of life now nobody really knows where the first live on North on earth formed somewhere somehow it did a biochemical reaction took place in it needed a spot where conditions were just right

can legally lacks not too warm that you had just right so it could have been a shallow lake somewhere over I have a tidal pool already Boesch invariably like we see them on the bottom with the devotion but wherever it happened prebiotic materials mixed in the warmed and eventually they a simple together the perturbed to form the for

single-cell life now this is what our earliest ancestor probably look like it's called a microbial mat so think of it as a a colony of microbes now together they created oxygen through the process of photosynthesis and billions of years ago colonies of animals like this

created the first free oxygen for Earth's atmosphere so from this very simple beginning life under it has experienced a tremendous explosion of life over 3.8 billion years from the small microbes our life is evolved from these two complex organisms that inhabit an astonishingly diverse array of habitats

so today for example we find it microbes living in boiling hot water does anybody know where this is yellowstone its as gramm prismatic spring in yellowstone everyone at the colors that you see here the yellows in the greens in the Reds those are all different microbe colonies in the vid Apted two different conditions

chemical and temperature conditions in that pool now at the other end to the temperature spectrum we have these guys these are what i'd like with I'm these are basically little worms I the Nestle quite happily deep in the deep ocean surface and they live under positive methane ice so each environment on earth actually shapes the kind of wife they can survive

in it from the mountains here add to the frigid conditions at the polls humans we actually will quite happily in a number of different habitats from the city's in the city of Cairo down here to this little mountain village to farms outlet like we have right here in Fort Collins

I to the desert's to to the wilderness we pretty much live in we lived on the moon briefly I'm the desert's have their own more than three-quarters of our planet is also covered with water and so the oceans the deep oceans in the coral reef everything in between supporting incredible diversity of life in the desert's have their own set

supply fans as do the as to the the forest so our planet is really an object lesson in how life is formed and how it adapted to an extreme number of conditions many different environments so have to ask if my wife could get a foothold in our planet can you actually get a foothold

in some other planet now remember membrane talked about the Kepler Mission it's found more than 2700 put it potentially the world's out there there are many more to be found it only looked in a very small area of space so there are many more world out there and so I'd say the odds for finding live somewhere else

are pretty good in closing I'd like to %um like to end with a couple of thoughts first evolved everything started with a big bang all life started with the Big Bang second volume we're all star stuff every single Adam in your body came from some kind of star came from stars think about it think about your eyes every atom in your eye

was forged in a long dead star so when you go out tonight and you look up at the sky clears up you'll see stars in your basically looking at the stars you're looking at the universe you are the universe looking back at itself and finally life is a big biochemistry experiment it began some thirteen point eight billion years ago

in the Big Bang it continues on this planet it is very likely working itself out on other planets as well in the conditions and every planet where life forms dictate the forms at that life will take they actually guide the evolution of life that's certainly been the case here on earth with all the diversity of life that we have

so in a very real sense our planet was not made for us we were made for our planet it sheet we r it is very likely that somewhere else out there there are other planets doing the same thing for their collections have life thank you all



Video Description

Carolyn Collins Petersen is an award-winning science writer, astronomy video producer, and voice actor living and working in the mountains of Colorado. She has written or produced for fulldome theaters around the world, as well as online media series in astronomy and space science.

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